Need for warm, intimate, continuous relationship with mother or caregiver. Absence of it is maternal deprivation
Partial deprivation results in anxiety, excessive need for love, powerful feelings of revenge, consequent feelings of guilt and depression. Lead to nervous disorders
Complete deprivation due to absence of one person with whom to feel secure can cripple the capacity to form relationships.
Actual family environment cause emotional problems
Internal working models: internalized models of infant-caregiver interactions (IWM)
Mental representation of self and environment
Strange situation experiment
20 minute miniature drama
- 1.Mothe and infant playing in a play room
- 2.2. A stranger introduced to the play room
- 3.The stranger plays with the baby in the presence of mother
- 4.Mother briefly leaves the room
- 5.Mother returns (reunion)
- 6.Baby is alone, both stranger and mother leaves (second separation
- 7.Stranger enters
- 8.Mother enters (second reunion)
Internal models based on experiences of loss, rejection and separation
Mary Main: internal working models , adult attachment interview
Attachment an inbuilt tendency to assure development
Repeated interactions with caregiver form IMW internal working models
Internal representations express in different attachment patters
The attachment system persist across a life span
Human infants need the protection of “stronger and wiser others” to help them face bodily, emotional, and environmental challenges
Separation leads to protest, despair and detachment
Proximity seeking: seeking and maintaining proximity to a protective figure or figures
Secure base: precondition for all meaningful interactions. A secure base from which he can explore the world, unfamiliar settings, and experiences. At times of vilence of danger, the infant clings to the attachment figure. Attachment and exploration are related. It is only when child is sure of maternal presence or security, that he resorts to environment. When there is this secure base, it does not impede exploratory behavior. In adults absence of secure base in interpersonal interactions lead to defensive behaviours. When no secure base exists, an individual may resort to defensive and manipulative behaviours such as sexualization of relationships to minimize the pain of separation anxiety at the expense of truly reciprocal relationship.
Safe haven: humans seek haven not in a place, but in the company of a stronger or wiser person. In a moment of distress during play, the child moves away from playmate and to the mother or principal care giver. Here there is the emotionally distressed state present.
Separation anxiety and response to loss.
Emotional response is to Protest, despair and detachment. In healthy mourning different responses such as anger to third parties, a oneself or the person lost, denial of loss and search for the person in the hope of reunion.
Protest: express anger physically with the limited resources, Reject alternative figures like nurses.
Despair: hopelessness prevail. Worried about missing mother, physical responses diminish, withdrawn and inactive. Yearning for return of the lost attachment figure. Anger may be directed to other children, compulsive care giving
Detachment: resume interest in the environment, accept alterntive figures. When mother returns, may show clinging, apathetic, listlessness etc.
If prolonged, my ignore contact with humans. May become self centered, preoccupied with material things such as toys, superficial and no longer care for anyone.
In adults excessive demands on others, angry when the needs are not met, dependent or hysterical, lack deep relationships.
Affectionate bond and attachment bond
IMW- are working because correction continued revision
Secure: Group B
Securely attached: proximity maintanence, comfort seeking, exploration. Consistently available and responsive.
Adults: low in anxiety and avoidance dimensions. Comfortable with closeness and intimacy. Self perception as worthy of affection, valued b others. Others are caring, rliable.
Optimal affect regulation strategy. Apparently threatening negative emotions become less threatening. More organized n traumatic situations. A conviction that relating with others can beget relief, comfort and pleasure and that the self is good, loved and accepted will be registered
in the internal working model. Secure attachment becomes a milieu for sufficient affect regulation.
The capacity for interactive repair, which helps the infants to regulate
stress-induced negative affect, will also enable them in later stages of life to
seek contact with others.
conflict resolution style with high concern for self and others.
Anxious/Avoidant – Group Aavoidantly attached infants showed only limited distress at separation. On reunion, they avoided contact with caregivers, and were engaged with toys but with less enthusiasm and
interest. child was a way of distracting himself from the need of
two types of avoidant attachment in adulthood
based on the dimensions of avoidance and anxiety. Fearful-avoidant are
those who are high in both anxiety and avoidance. They desire and fear
closeness. They distrust others strongly and are extremely sure of the
rejection of others. This results in discomfort with intimacy and avoidance
of close relationships. Dismissing-avoidant type persons are low in anxiety
but high in avoidance. They see their caregivers as generally unresponsive
and unavailable, but themselves as confident and invulnerable to negative
feelings. They try to be self-reliant and to project a positive self-image in
the midst of possible rejections by minimizing attachment needs, distancing
themselves from others, and restricting expressions of emotionality
deactivation strategy of affect
regulation. Aversive and intrusive responses of caregivers do not restore
emotional equilibrium to the infant, rather, they leave him emotionally
overaroused. In neither case does he receive any help to manage the
negative emotions. Such situations teach the infant to overregulate hisfeelings and expressions in order to maintain an attachment bond
Anxious/Ambivalent – Group Cchildren were distressed prior to the separation as well as throughout the procedure. The presence of the caregiver did not calm them
and they appeared passive and angry, and would not return to exploration
after a reunion. caregivers are committed to the task
of nurturing, but are often unavailable emotionally They responded
according to their schedule, not when the infant needed it. They were
unavailable or unresponsive sometimes and intrusive at other timesThis
results in enmeshed relationships. Here, the children would cling to the
parent due to such experiences of intermittent unavailability
preoccupied or anxious-ambivalent
persons show high anxiety and low avoidance. They desire a high degree of
closeness and are not confident of others‘ availability and responsiveness.
Their self-esteem depends highly on the approval of others since they own
a negative self model and a positive model of others. They are
hypervigilant to potential sources of stress or th
p. 86. hyperactive strategy of affect
regulation. In order to attain the desired proximity to the attachment figure,
the individual keeps his or her attachment system hyperactivated.
A sense of
personal helplessness created by this strategy inhibits the development of
positive feelings about the self because (1) such feelings may deactivate the
attachment system and (2) overdependency destabilises self esteem and
leads to abandonmen
Usually such children seem to have a difficult
temperament which is characterised by intense expressiveness, negative
mood responses, slow adaptability to change, and irregularity of biological
the infant fails to develop a coherent
strategy for managing anxiety and he or she will direct attachment
behaviours with conflicting motivations
Disorganised infants and unresolved adults may be fluctuating between
the deactivating and the hyperactivating strategies of affect regulation
Access to both these strategies makes them prone to conflicting and
overwhelming impulses. Their self-destructive behaviour can be
understood as their mode of dealing with these conflicting and
Individual Trait and relationship pattern
attachment pattern functions as a relationship pattern as well as
an individual trait
Fraley and Brumbaugh, while holding that attachment
security can be both trait-like and contextual phenomena, understand the
within-person variations as a temporary deviation from a dynamically
an attachment system endures all throughout the life
‗from cradle to grave‘
It is the proper attachment in the early years, which equips the person to
confront adaptively the social challenges of his or her environment
in adolescence to peers