– Enrique Marroquín cmf


            “The skies narrate the Glory of God… “, Like the gift of His love until the end: some 100,000 million galaxies exist in the Universe. Ours – the Milky Way – contains about 400,000 million stars. Four thousand million years ago, in a small planet of so many stars, took place a singular prodigy: the appearance of life. We ignore if life also exists in other planets of the universe. Statistically it would be most probable but such a quantity of factors is required and in such a precise proportion that some deem it to be rather a cosmic exception. Be that as it may we don’t find vital vestiges in our “neighbourhood”, given the incommensurable distances that separate us from other stars, to know the answer would be impossible.

            The planet Earth, thanks to the admirable balance of its ecosystem, looks like a living organism (“ it breathes”, renews itself etc.). The strategy of life to subsist has been its diversification (some 50,000 million species exist). Thanks to this strategy, life has been adapting to the changing ecological conditions and it has also evolved towards greater perfection. It will make about two million and half years, a race of apes happened to get off the trees and stood on land. This allowed him, on one hand, to lose the later callousness of the neck, such as other mammals have, their brain grew and it could liberate its superior extremities for useful ends. The erect position also had weight over the vertebral column, female were the most affected. In their pregnancy she had to adopt the mechanism of giving birth before time, with the necessity of taking care its offspring in greater time.  

            When it reached their state of homo sapiens, it received from the Creator a mission: “Grow, multiply, fill the Earth and subdue it” (Gen. 1, 28). Thanks to their acquired rationality, it ceases to be the most vulnerable animal – with respect to their adaptation to the ecological niche (it doesn’t possess neither resistant skin, neither claws, neither hooves to run…) to the potentiality of adapting to the ecological niche more diversified to their own necessities. It received the task of continuing the creative process and responsibility toward nature, beginning with its own: their reproductive capacity. This transformed them to be the most powerful animal. But from their same origin, soon they became aware of their power and of their freedom, They had to make a radical option that would affect their later development: trusting to the Creator, to live in harmony with God, with their fellow beings, and with Nature, or not to conform to just satisfying their basic necessities, but also quenching selfish appetites, succumbing to the seductive dominance of power on their fellow beings. This was the real “forbidden fruit” that caused him a quadruple rupture: spiritual, social, religious and ecological. This dominance of power was translated into exploitation, discrimination, oppression and “ecocide”[2]: If God had left man “in the garden of the Eden to cultivate it and work”, now, with this original disorder, the work stopped to be the mere continuation of the divine creative power and it became means of labour exploitation, enjoying without sweating, of the excessive fatigue of others. In a similar way, maternity, being the link of the divine creative process became painful and object of oppression (” I will make your fatigues many … you will work and will give birth to children to your husband you will pine for him and he will dominate you); and the “subjection” of the Earth – was equal to a stewardship of responsible care -, she became domain to make of her what is fancied – ” creation, indeed, was subjected to vanity, not spontaneously, but for who subjects it (Rom. 8, 20) -, not without damage against its same executioner: “damned is the floor for your cause; with fatigue you will take out of him food every day of your life. You prick with thorns and thistles will produce” you (Gen.2, 17-18). With this dominance power, it is certain, that the human species could survive and extend; at the expense of there unbalanced growth regarding the other inhabitants of the planet. This original sin left developing, until putting in risk its own survival of species. However, we are not before a fatalistic impasse, because a believer trusts the Redemption from that Fall, redemption that will reach, even, to the whole Nature that is for the time being “while waiting for liberation of the servitude of corruption to participate the glorious freedom of the children of God. Because we know that the whole Creation groans until the present and it suffers pains of childbirth” (Rom. 8, 19-22).  

            A hundred thousand years after that original entrusting, it seemed that the first divine precept – to “grow, to multiply and to fill the Earth” – was translated in demographic responsibility: toward 1919 the humanity had reached the 1,500 million individuals. Hardly 50 years later, in 1969, the Club of Rome verified that it had already been duplicated, reaching three millions. Thirty years later we begin the millennium with six thousand million human beings… as for the second precept – to “dominate the Earth” -, up to now, the task of the “homo habilis” had decreased to the development of tools to assist the growing demands of its overpopulation. But these tools left making more and more dangerous and destructive to their habitat.  


             By the middle of the XIX century, the evolution of “tools” ended in the industrial” “revolution, taking advantage of coal and petroleum taken place by those gigantic plants that characterized the Pleistocene forests buried by millenniums underground. Such reserves were mainly found in the tropics, that is to say, in the South of the Planet; but industrialization was in the North, as product of the colonialist looting of gold and of plant of the South. If we accommodate the total history of the planet in a single year, the period of industrialization up to the consumption of fossil energy, it would hardly correspond to one second. During this brief time, their exploitation has been so intense – of 1950 to the date 400% increased – that its exhaustion could be given in question of decades. We can hardly imagine the crisis that this would represent, because almost all our current technology depends on this energy type.  

            The worst thing is that only a part of this energy is used.[3] Surplus is discarded to the exterior becoming contamination to the air, to water and to the earth. For the first time in history the irresponsible exploitation of the resources puts in serious risks, not only the survival of the human species, but also even the viability of life. A report of the World Watch Forum concludes that the Earth will die in the 2050. For this apocalyptic presage they calculated the environmental” “value using scientific and statistical data and they took 1970 as year base of value of 100. In a generation, said value has only diminished at 65.[4] In the last fifty years we have consumed more than 50% of the available aquifer and energy resources and we have destroyed 50% of the forest resources. In the three last decades, more than a third of the natural world has been destroyed. Of course the reality is complex and other factors intervened, it is common feeling among scientists that by not changing this consumption rhythm, the sea will no longer give more fish, the forests will be destroyed and the springs will be polluted in half a century. The predatory pattern of development that has not been imposed since more than a century had already generated countless located ecological crisis, but with the neoliberal globalisation – the expansion of the world market, the neurochemistry, agro industry, transport, industry etc. – we begin to live the beginnings of a global and dynamic ecological crisis.  

            We are aware that the whole Planet is a unit, and that local destructions combine and complicate. This doesn’t exempt the regional analyses. Latin America and the Caribbean still possess important natural resources that, appropriately taken care of, could favour a sustainable development. However, there are reasons to be watchful: with occasion of the Summit of Johannesburg Ricardo Sanchez, regional director of the Program of United Nations for the Environment (PNUMA), verified how the globalisation has not been beneficent for the Latin American subcontinent. It is true that in this decade after River a macroeconomic stabilization was achieved, they stopped the galloping inflationary processes and the processes of peace culminated in Central America; however there has not been enough economic growth, and this has prevented to generate resources to fight against poverty and to revert problems. In this way, if in 1980 there was in Latin America 100 million poor, in 1990 there were 200 millions of poor and now there are 220 millions. “The area became the most unequal in the planet. To this a permanent deterioration of natural resources is manifested in the loss of biological wealth, of forests and the growth of the contamination of air and water.”  

From the demographic point of view, Latin America is considered as a region of stabilization of mortality[5] and of fecundity, that gives stagnation in the percentages of population growth. With their population 75% living in cities, it recognizes as an urban continent; although still there are countries – Guatemala, Bolivia, Honduras and Nicaragua – with great number of rural population, where fecundity is high (superior to 40 by thousand). Of the 220 million poor people in Latin America, 77 live in rural areas and they compose the population’s rural Latin American 64%. 54 percent of those people are considered indigent. The cities have grown chaotic. This generates degradation of the conditions of life. In the world, some six thousand million tons of dioxides of carbon are hurled to the atmosphere every year, poisoning the air. Their contamination is serious in some cities of the continent (in the city of Mexico, for example, people have to verify the IMECAS[6] before taking out her car). Added to that, the irresponsible use of chemical substances – preservative, transgenic foods, insecticides, deodorants, contraceptives, etc. – favoured by an indiscriminate commercial opening whose abuse undermines our health diminishing the nutritious value of our food.[7]

The petroleum

 The rich oil deposits of Latin America are being intensively exploited by Petroleum Corporations: Mexico, with 509 million daily barrels, already overcame Saudi Arabia as the main supplier of crude oil to its neighbour in the North; Venezuela occupies the fourth place, after Canada, with 106 mbd.[8] Colombia continues being an important supplier: according to the intelligence agency Stratford, there exists 37 thousand million barrel reserves; but they have not carried out studies in place where there could have more.[9] Ecuador, which is not a member of the Organization of Oil-exporting countries, produces 418 thousand barrels of crude oil per day. We have an example of how these extractions constitute real lootings in Bolivia: the North American company SEMPRA ENERGY, together with the Consortium PACIFIC LNG, conformed by the English transnationals British Petroleum and British GAS and the Spanish company REPSOL, announced that” they would export to United States 7 trillion cubic feet of gas in 20 years, leaving 400 million dollars annually for Bolivia.” In fact, these companies would generate profits of at least 1000 million dollars annually, while Bolivia will only take part 50 millions. While the price of gas is between 1,3 and 1,7 dollars in cubic feet. The business outlines an enormous discount; with a tiny price of   0,70 US dollars with the added difficulty that on this tiny price, Bolivia will receive only the 18%. If the business of exporting gas had been in Bolivian hands, it would have an entrance of 9.100 million dollars for the commercialisation of gas which would receive half (50%), that is to say 4.550 million dollars. Therefore, the mega project means a robbery in fact of more than 3660 millions.

The water

Although in this Seminar there will be a specific topic on water, for this initial panoramic vision it will be enough to remember the big resources of fresh water that possesses Latin America, of which the Amazons and the Orinoco are the good known ecosystems. The pluvial precipitations average is 60 % greater than those of the rest of the world. Swamps, lakes and rivers are related ecosystems and they also supply water to the region. However, 25% of its territories is arid or semi-arid, 20% of its inhabitants doesn’t have access to drinking water and 30% lack some appropriate systems of reparation. Latin American cities drain their aquifers that took centuries in being filled. In Mexico City, for example, the layers of water descend a meter per year.[10] In some semi-arid regions, the lack of access to drinking water is critical. It will also be necessary to mention the lack of appropriate services of water supply in some places of Latin America and the inadequate treatment of residual discharges. Help is offered in the Northeast of Brazil for the communal construction of cisterns.

In the Subcontinent, the increase of water consumption between 1990 and 2000 was of 45%. The answer to this increase of demand has been the construction of big hydraulics mainly reservoirs of deviation channels of rivers. In the future the demand of fresh water in the region will get complicated even more, continuing such tendency to the deterioration from the base resources to a growing speed. The shortage of funds and vision of the State is by nature inefficient and it affects the administration of resources in most of American countries. In the last 10 years, the process of privatisation of water with tendency of monopoly has accelerated, with constant modifications to the legislations, which is far from favouring the population. An example is Bolivia, where the privatisation of water of Cochabamba in 1990 for the Bechtel Corporation, through its branch” Waters of Tunari”, made increase its price 35%. To recover the liquid in the year 2000 cost US$25 millions dollar for the supposed left earnings.

Luz amarilla a la Amazonía

The planet Earth is a unit. From the airplane one cannot distinguish the frontiers. An exception is the one that separates Dominican Republic of Haiti: for the deforestation the floor of this country has demeaned visibly. The great capital has already given up the appropriation of big territories, because it was politically risky. Now it prefers to rent lands for a certain period: in Chile they rent seedlings of eucalyptus when it finishes the contract 20 years later they are returned totally worn-out. Latin America and the Caribbean almost lose 7 million hectares of forests every year, and the biological diversity is disappearing. But they are humid forests where the destructions are more lamentable. These spaces constitute the oldest ecosystems in the world and they are 60% of animals and of plants. Of them we obtain 30% of the chemical substances required for pharmaceutical production, as well as rubber, oils, latex and wax. Hence it would be senseless that we have already destroyed 80% of the humid forests of the planet, and with them millions of living species. In the forest of Costa Rica, for example, we find 250 species of mammals, 845 species of birds, and 10,000 varieties of plants.

The Amazon basin is a green lung of singular importance and one of the main world ecological reserves. It contains two thirds of all the existent fresh water in the world, being a warehouse of medicinal plants and a natural park of biodiversity: in 10 Hectares of Amazon forest we can find 300 species of trees and three thousand species of fish. Last year a world campaign of opposition was circulating by the cybernet against the Brazilian politics regarding the Amazons.[11] The deforestation already in course was denounced by Mons. Geraldo Verdier, bishop of Guajará Mirim, concerning several deaths caused by accidents with wooden trucks. The bishop testifies how every month, with complicity of the authorities, they leave the region illegally more than 200 trucks trailers, some of those under terrible conditions.[12] According to the informers of the aforementioned Campaign, a project exists of the Amazon Forest. Four times the extension of Portugal – one plans to devote to agriculture and cattle raising, and the Government plans a network of highways in the forest that could accelerate this destruction. The worst thing is that the project doesn’t seem to be very viable, since the fertile floor is sour and not very deep, and the region is exposed to periodic floods, with devastating erosions that will also diminish rains. Now 25% of the basin of the Amazons has already been destroyed, having been deforested about 160,000 kms2 with very little utility, for the above reasons.

It seems to be that the accusation is based on James’ report Alcock, professor of environmental sciences in the Penn State’s Abington College of the University of Pennsylvania, published in the magazine Science that sustains that following this tendency,” we can say goodbye to the Amazons of here to less than half century.” According to this study, the Amazonía is a complicated feedback system in which the call” evapotranspiration ” regulates the retention of rain water in the ecosystem and its return to the Atmosphere. Without very developed vegetation there would not be enough water to dilute and a very unsure possibility for the conservation of the forest. The investigator concludes that by 2020 the deforestation will have 42% of the Amazons and in 40 or 50 years could collapse the area totally, with the added difficulty that would become of not modifying the tendency in 10 or 15 years irreversible.[13] For intellectual honesty it is necessary to notice that this report has been answered by other investigators, because it is a simple mathematical projection that is given in the practice, and apparently one already begins to take measures; but anyway it doesn’t ceased to be disturbing.

Regional manifestations of global phenomena

 The most disturbing ecological problems at global level also have manifestations in the region. Earth warming is probably the mainstay. Estimates of an increase of 5° in the temperature average during the present century, don’t have precedent in the geologic history of the Plant, and it is known that this will cause that several coastal cities of the Continent be flooded. Also, meteorological phenomena are increased with catastrophic characteristic: from 1960 to date in Central America droughts, hurricanes and the storms have been quadrupled, and this explains the phenomena of El Niño.

The layer of ozone act like an indispensable filter against the ultraviolet radiations of solar rays. The weight loss of ozone layer is known due to the consumption of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that every year increase to 7% in the atmosphere, mainly in the polar areas, particularly in the Patagonia of Chile and Argentina. These radiations increase the cancer of the skin, the illnesses of the eyes, damage of immune systems; besides, it degrades the phytoplankton of the oceanic systems.


 Parallel to the worsening of ecocide, there are also growing efforts in favour of an alternative model of development that makes possible another world. There are many signs of hope, among which I consider the impressive movement of “Justice, Peace and Integrity of the Creation” (JPIC) whose organization to the interior of the Church goes being increased. Numerous dioceses, religious institutes and lay movements leave adding to this taking of conscience. I am convinced that this movement constitutes an authentic Kairos through the history. Their way of doing represents a new behaviour that enriches the ministry of Charity in the Church. By the way, some of this behaviour has happened historically in the Social Pastoral, each one of those has not substituted the previous one, but rather it has enlarged their working field. It has left this way passing from mere assistance to social promotion and of the transformation of unjust structures. The paradigm of JPIC embraces four areas – economic justice, human rights, peace and ecology -, which are not dispersed areas, but rather they are related to each other.

Applying to the ecological dimension the Social Pastoral verifies that although a specific area of ecological justice exists – one that is in charge of an appropriate relationship with the atmosphere -, this won’t be able to give in an unjust world: Life, in all its forms, demands liberation; the world today clamors peace and justice for all creatures, valuable in themselves and before God. Their interdependence constitutes the Integrity of Creation.[14] The Social Pastoral has undertaken numerous campaigns to organize the world charity in attendance to the victims of natural disasters. It has also been interested in the promotion of development, supporting technical and social projects that foresee and avoid the natural disasters. But while advancing the awareness we discover that they are the poor nations. and Latin America especially – those that lives i suffering the climatological changes for the configuration of their geographical space. Also, the lack of intellectual, financial resources and technicians of these nations are blocked before international debts and they cannot respond to these changes. Against what was thought some years ago that the ecological problem was a first world thing concealing transformative resistances (to defend some species in extinction), now it is patent that the efforts for the gestation of” new skies and new earth, in those that it inhabits justice” (II P 3, 13) they imply the care of the environment inseparably, the combat against the causes that generate poverty, the diffusion of a culture of peace and no-violence and the defense of the human rights. It is the interdependence of these causes and the global perspective of these fights that constitutes the primordial historical task that unifies today all those that take the ideals seriously, at the same time that they constitute for us an elementary consistency of our faith. It is also this interdependence of causes that inspires the philosophy of the” sustainable” development promoted by the most lucid documents that constitute the” lay” teaching for us:

  1. The Letter of the Earth[15] emphasizes the main world ecological challenges, and from an ethical perspective it verifies how the environmental protection, the human rights, the sustainable human development and the peace are interdependent and indivisible: “The dominant patterns of production and consumption are causing environmental devastation, exhaustion of resources and a massive extinction of species. Communities are being destroyed. The benefits of development are not shared equally and the breach among rich and poor are getting wider. The injustice, poverty, the ignorance and the violent conflicts are manifested everywhere and they are the cause of big sufferings. An increase without the human population’s precedents has overloaded the ecological and social” systems.Kofi Annan, General Secretary of the UN, in his report presented in the Summit of Johannesburg on Sustainable Development, in September of the 2002, analyzes the process achieved from the Summit of the Earth of 1992 in River of Janeiro, and it recognizes the ecological inefficacy of the world efforts due to the unjust dominant economic model:
  2. “In general, efforts to impel human development and to stop the degradation of the environment, have not been effective during the last decade. The few resources, the lack of political will, a broken into fragments approach and not coordinated, and the continuous wasteful models of production and of consumption, have frustrated the efforts of putting in execution the sustainable development [16]
  3. “The Manifesto for Life: Towards an Ethics for Sustainability” is the result of the symposium carried out in Bogotá from the 2 to May 4 2002 to prepare the contribution of Latin America and the Caribbean to the Summit of Johannesburg. [17]The document to make stand out the narrow link among these imperatives:
    “The ethics of the sustainability confronts us with the bond of society with nature, with the human condition and the sense of life. (26) It appeals to the moral responsibility of its fellow beings, the social groups and the State to guarantee the continuity of the life and to improve the quality of life. This responsibility is founded in principles of solidarity among political and social spheres, so that they are the social actors who define and legitimate the social order, the forms of life, the practices of the sustainability (28) the ethics of the sustainability questions the effective forms of dominance settled down by the gender differences, ethnos, social class and sexual option, to establish a diversity and plurality of rights of the citizenship and the community. (29) The ethics for the sustainability demands a new social pact. This debit side to be founded in a mark of basic agreements for the construction of sustainable societies that includes new social relationships, production ways and consumption patterns. These agreements should incorporate the diversity of cultural styles of production and of life; to recognize the disagreements, to assume the conflicts, to identify the absentees of the dialogue and to include those excluded of the democratic” game. (30)
  4. The new left is also convinced that it is not possible to solve the environmental crisis by attacking ecological questions exclusively:
    It has less and less sense to treat the ecological and social questions in an independent way. We cannot accept to unwrap two parallel groups of measures, one to respond to the social necessities (” to save the humanity”) and another to respond to the ecological damages (” to save the planet”). The current objective is to combine these two demands in one coherent program of action. This is also worth for the theoretical plane: ecology should not be reduced to a” chapter added” for a fundamental program of social transformation.[18]


 Ambition and selfishness, potentialized by science and technology, have led to social, ecological and also spiritual crises. because as Gandhi affirmed: there is enough for the necessities of each one, but not enough to satisfy the greed of each one. Suffering cause by the deterioration of the planet owes to the irresponsible consumption of the planetary resources. This consumption is unjust and unequal; they promote a society of waste and superfluous consumerism: one fourth part of the population of the North consumes 70% of the world’s energy, 75% of metals, 85% of wood and 60% of food. USA represents the world population’s 6%; but it consumes 48% of the total wealth of the planet. The worst thing is that it is this same model of” technological development” since the nineteen sixties with development program of ” Alliance for Progress”, it is the one being impose to countries of Latin America.

Those who sustain the neoliberal economic pattern don’t care the world population’s 80%; but not even that of their own descendants, and even, that of the same ones supposedly” beneficiaries.” Their negative goods are perceptible in the First same World, so much in the domain of the public health – more and more gravely affected for the pollution of lands, it dilutes, air and food as much as   that of the exclusions: to growing number of families of the rich countries they ploughs hindering to pay the access to the average water by reason of the explosive increase of the prices, so much consequence of their contamination like of the politics of privatisation of this sector. The ecological crisis contributes, in diverse ways, to increase the inequalities among North-south, but also among rich and poor inside each country. The articulation of the ecological and social crises is such that he/she becomes unconscious to want to establish a hierarchy of priorities among them. Both should be treated jointly.[19]

 The ecological debt:

 With respect to the Jubilee 2000 campaign for the cancellation of foreign debt of poor countries it was thought the question “Who owes to whom?” in reference to the damages inflicted to the ecology of these countries. Friends of the Earth organized from Ecuador the International Campaign for the Recognition and Recovery of the Ecological Debt in the South hemisphere.[20] Here are some of the adduced reasons:

 – The exploitation of natural resources (petroleum, minerals, marines, forest and genetic resources) seriously affect survival base of countries of the south.

¨ The extraction and production of primal materials for export in commercial treaties is not equal and that they affect the atmosphere.

¨ the intellectual appropriation of the relative knowledge of seeds and medicinal plants in which biotechnology and the modern agro industry are based and for which the poor countries should pay bonuses.

¨ The use and degradation of the best lands and of water, air and human energy for the development of export crops put in risk the availability of food and the sovereignty of local and national communities.

¨ the atmospheric pollution that the industrialized countries produce causes climatic changes and the thinning of the ozone layer.

¨ The production of chemical and nuclear projects and the location of toxic waste deposited in poor countries.

¨ The economic politicians imposed by international organisms as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, tends to conserve the dominant system and the commercial and financial control of the rich ones on natural resources.

¨ The destruction and devastation carried out by the rich countries in the countries dominated during the colonial periods.

Poverty, cause of environmental degradation

 It is necessary an integral ecosystemic position that links poverty and the degradation of the environment like very related processes to each other.[21] The ecosystems of some regions of the orb cannot produce enough food to eat to their people and to provide drinking water. To the economies of subsistence it is difficult to take care of the environment. The authorities and populations of poor countries and other sectors don’t have a clear idea on the magnitude and importance of the ecological problems. The governments and the private sector resist to a” ecological” accounting for the fear that it can affect to the economic growth. An ecological education is necessary for sustainable development and greater sensibility in spite of the urgent economic necessities that implement good political ecology. Otherwise, the vicious circle of poverty and environmental degradation will continue being accentuated.

The region of Latin America and the Caribbean has examples of irrational exploitation of resources caused by the lack of planning, institutional weakness and for lack of coordination among the provincial, national and international plans. A not planned growth will continue culminating in widespread ecological, social and economic crisis. In the last fifteen years the paper of the State has decreased considerably. The globalisation and the privatisations diminish the state responsibility in the development areas. The state organisms dedicated to the protection of the environment have rickety budgets and it lacks of support and of political weight, and the States exclude the ecological problem of their central economic organisms. If this happens to what a States could one expect from the private companies located in these countries, interested exclusively for the profitability?

Free trade or free hands for Plunder

 Latin America is in a continental wide campaign against ALCA (Agreement of Free Trade of America). It turns as a merely commercial agreement, and critics foresee the treaty as greater cause for poverty in the region. However, the commercial aspects are hardly the most evident things. ALCA will also have important effects. The call guarantees investors to include the consideration of earth as merchandise; an intellectual property regime that allows to patent and to control life and the agricultural production, by means of the patents and the diffusion of the transgenic of the transnationals and the change of legal and constitutional norms. The investments of ALCA at the same time look to sell the products of United States in Latin America and to use cheap manpower, to take to United States the natural resources of the region, beginning with petroleum and the electricity required to solve their current energy crisis. These objectives imply the construction of gigantic infrastructures – hydroelectric dams, big highways, channels and ports – whose projection is specified in the Plan Puebla-Panama, the project of channel interocean of the Atrato and the Initiative of Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America IRSA. These macro projects would be made on the lands of rural communities of the whole continent. [22]


 The current formulation of the Universal Declaration of Human rights of the UN has been fruit of a long elaboration. The recognition of the diverse human rights has crossed three successive generations of rights:

  1. Political civic laws: they were the first ones in being recognized since the original elaboration of the Universal Declaration in 1948. It was then the time of the” cold” war; these rights were impelled and diffused by the call” free” world, against the authoritarian socialist countries.
  2. Economic-social rights: Communist countries conditioned their acceptance of the Universal Declaration to the inclusion of these rights. Basic human necessities: food, housing, health, education, etc. – that in their opinion, would have to be the fundamental ones. They were picked up in their article from 22 to the 25.[23] In 1966, these rights were better explicitated in the International Pact of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (PIDESC), gone into effect in 1976 and ratified for more than 140 States.
  3. Differentiated rights: If we all are entitled with the same rights, some are differentiated, depending on age, sex, race or condition. The Universal Declaration opposes all discrimination (art 7), it speaks of the rights of maternity and childhood (art. 25), and it recognizes explicitly some, as establishing a family (art. 16), to profess a religion and to guarantee the respect to the conscience of each one (art. 18).

      Care of nature has to do with all these rights. For example, a green” dictatorship” that sought the ecological rationality by means of dictatorial forms would be incompatible with the” sustainable” development, only possible in democratic systems. Equally, one of the basic economic rights, the care of health, is harmed with the environmental degradation. In China, around 1.9 million people die annually for affections in the breathing roads associated to the contamination of the air, what represents 21 percent of all the registered deceases. As for the differentiated rights, it recognizes that ” all children are entitled of being raised in a home, a school or a healthy” community.[24] The children are the most sensitive to the negative stimuli of their natural environment: 40% of the illnesses related with the atmosphere (especially asthma and allergies) affect children smaller than five years that represent 10 percent of the population of the planet. Ecofeminism points out to the patriarchal culture as causing good measure of ecocide. Women’s rights. especially that of the poor countries – they ploughs safeguarded better with an ecological balance. The woman that lives in deteriorated places, for example, has to walk long distances to bring water or firewood, loaded on head, which blocks her education.

In recent years the Universal Declaration has been criticized by its individualistic focus, missing recognition of the collective rights of people. This was the tenor of the Declaration of Argel -, so it i probable to have ” fourth generation” of human rights soon. One could think that the ecological question was a previous and more general right than the human rights, because it would turn on the rights that possess the Earth and the same Life. Let us listen to theologian Thomas Berry:

“Our activity has geologic and biological dimensions. We are changing the chemistry of the planet. We are changing the big hydraulic cycles. We are saturating the air, the water, the floor with toxic substances and we will never be able to recover the original purity. We are altering the integral system of the earth that has required trillion years to generate the splendid series of living beings.[25]

THE Planet possesses certain rights to its conservation. But at the same time it can be considered as a collective human right living in a healthy environment. To protect and to improve the environment is a right of the global common patrimony. The relationship between the care of the environment and the human rights can be seen implicitly in some articles of the Universal Declaration, or of the PIDESC, such as the right under the care of the health. However, the international juridical development goes in this address. Here are some examples:

  1. The Declaration of Valencia, in 1998, in article 9, it recognizes” the obligation and the responsibility to protect and to promote a sure, stable and healthy environment.[26]
  2. The Letter of the Earth, based on this philosophy, is pronounced with respect to the basic human rights and the eradication of poverty like an ethical, social and environmental imperative:

    a. To guarantee the right to drinking water, to clean air, food security, to non-polluted earth, to housing and sure reparation, assigning the required national and international resources.
    b.To enable all human beings with education and with the required resources so that they reach a way of sustainable life and to provide the social security and the support nets required for those who cannot sustain themselves.
    c.To recognize the ignored, to protect the vulnerable ones, to serve those that suffer and to facilitate the development of their capacities and to pursue their aspirations.

  1. The Commission of Human rights of the UN, April 30 2001, concluded that we all are entitled to live in a world free of toxic pollution and environmental degradation, and it invited the High Commissioner of Human rights Mary Robinson and to the Executive Director of the UNEP, Klaus Toepfer, to organize a Seminar to bring near the concerns for the Environment and the principles of human rights whose results were considered in the session of the Commission in March 2002. In relation to the event, Toepfer declared:

“The environmental conditions help clearly to determine the extension that people enjoy their basic rights to life, health, food and housing, as well as the culture and the traditional means of earning a living. Those that destroy the natural environment commit not only crime against nature, but rather they also violates human rights.”[27]

   Indigenous rights and environment

      In Latin America, indigenous people have inhabited the humid forests secularly. The indigenous politics of the government, from the Congress of Particular 1945 had been” integrationist”: to treat that the” Indians” abandon its culture, their customs and its territory to be integrated to the” civilization”, as cheap manpower. By the middle of the seventies a new politics of certain segregationists appeared to ignore them, disguised of cultural respect, they sought to avoid its modernization, pleading that this would imply environmental deterioration. To this respect the Declaration about the Right to Development, adopted by the General Assembly of the UN in 1986 that

includes the “inalienable right from the people to the full sovereignty on all its natural wealth”[28] resources An indigenous political attestation (not” indigenist”) should recognize the rights from these people to a modernization that it goes in consonance with its respective” cultural” ethos and to the protection of the atmosphere.

     For the big transnationals corporations, the ethnic minorities represent a problem. Its presence in rich territories in natural resources blocks big projects related with petroleum, wooden irrational exploitation, etc. is accused that its customs (such as the burn and level to extend its arable lands or firewood cut) they contribute to the environmental degradation. In fact they have made use plurisecular of their territory maintaining the ecological balance, although its population’s current growth demands bigger necessities. There exist numerous conflicts of indigenous towns at the moment against these corporations that at the same time that they seek to evict them of their ancestral territories, they are those that really degrade the atmosphere. In Mexico, for example, the natives of Chiapas or of Oaxaca don’t understand why now they have to request permission to foreign companies to drink water of their springs. Now they are the Transnationals Corporations those that condemn their seeds when patenting them; those that expel them to make big preys or central thermoelectric. Before this, the environmentalist movement will support with energy the right from the indigenous towns to its spirituality, customs, knowledge, lands and resources and to its practices linked to a way of sustainable life.

The U’wa, of Colombia, resists the Oil Oxy

 The U’wa threatens collective suicide (as they had made previously) if the oil Oxy gets the intensive exploitation of this energy of its ancestral territory. This ethnos of the Colombian Amazonía opposes the extraction of petroleum, because this would cause eviction and environmental damage, the black liquid is the blood of the earth, and the life of its group depends on the conservation of the ecological niche. Traditional authorities went to tribunals of justice to demand the respect and protection of their fundamental rights. The first judicial decision ordered the suspension of the works of the oil multinational. However, their government in association with the OXY appealed to the tribunals and it achieved to revoke the first decision. The natives appealed to the maximum artificial instance. Among so much, police and military present continue in the area, with threats of violent eviction and extermination. [29]

 The Kichwa of Ecuador also opposes to oil companies

 The community of Sarayaku makes part of an ancestral establishment of indigenous Kichwa that extends along 135 thousand hectares of tropical humid forest in the County of Pastaza in the south centre of the Ecuadorian Amazonía. From 1997, the town Kichwa of Sarayaku opposes herself with determination to the oil exploitation, faced the intents of diverse transnationals companies of entering in its territory (at the moment, against the General Company of Fuels San Jorge, of Argentinean origin). Even when the oil exploitation has not still settled in the territory Sarayaku, the first explorations have damaged so much the environment, as the quality of life, the traditional forms of living and the coexistence among communities, and the residents have been already killed of persecutions and threats. Before the firm opposition of the community to the oil project, the CGC had the support of the Armed forces and of paramilitary groups. In October of the 2002 national forces militarize the area, the people defended its rights and was able to take out the military of its territory. The leaders have denounced the threats of those that have been victims before the Inter-American Court of Human rights (CIDH) demanding the Ecuatorian government for the non-fulfilment of the dispositions settled down in the agreement 169 of the ILO and in the Universal Declaration of Human rights. The Secretary of Energy and Mines, Carlos Grove, made the following pejorative comment:

They don’t have the scientific knowledge, for that reason they are civilizations surpassed by modern or western civilization that is the one that has the scientific knowledge of nature and alone when among the scientific knowledge to administer the nature, this will be well preserved, because one cannot preserve nature with mythical attitudes. (.) Those who know about environmental handling are the oil companies in the country.”

Another similar conflict is giving in the small air terminal of Coca, 200 kilometres east of Quito oil area of Ecuador. From July of 2003, four indigenous people of the region (Siona, Huaorani, Cofan, Shuar), 30 thousand natives demanded Texaco before the Ecuadorian tribunals and they demanded a repair”: Five hundred thousand hectares of indigenous sacred territories have been contaminated by oil exploitation of Texaco and we demand that the signature cleans them in its entirety”, being calculated the amount of that operation in six million dollars. However, Texaco Petroleum Company (Texpet) defended, alleging that their filial” Texpet acted according to the laws and it carried out a meticulous program of cleaning in the places that concern them. [30]

Fumigations: against drug or against the people?

 The care of health is harmed with drugs, and in Latin America big territories are dedicated to its cultivation; however, the remedy is sometimes worse than the illness. The price of coffee and of other products collapsed as a consequence of the subsidy that they receive from imported grains. This went pushing many peasants of self-subsistence economic condition to sow some poppy furrows, only to obtain the money that they need for certain expenses. To discourage them of this activity, the government started the program Plants of substitution of cultivations, financing of $170,000 and it left sowing vegetables and fruit-bearing trees. However, other official sectors, like part of the” war against the drugs”, are devoted to fumigate the cultivated fields with drug, causing serious damages to the population’s health. The Indigenous Receipt, in Aponte (Nariño), to the south of Colombia, has about 8,000 HAS that were object of this fumigations. Of there we receive the dramatic testimony of one of the doctors”: 80% of the children have fallen sick: they have ulcers in the whole body, with strong itch, eruption, diarrhoea, fever, ocular infections. They lack medicines and the worst cases are only assisted. For ten successive days they were on flying light planes with herbicide. The fumigation program, finance and coordinated by United States, uses herbicide Ultra Roundup, cocktail with other chemists of the calls” surfactants” that it seems to be is those that cause the illness. The agricultural engineer Luis Cameos made recordings in video revealing how they dewed all the births of water of the moor for three serial times. The Army denies the tests and it assures that errors are never made. For the expert scientist in fumigations Ricardo Vargas agrees, because the program makes very low the possibility of an error. Does fumigation would not affect the survival of the communities? [31]

The Bolivian cocaleros

 Cocaine poisons the minds and it destroys people. For that reason, seen from the consumption, the combat to the drug traffic enjoys consent; but seen from the production, the problem is more complex. In Bolivia, the coca leaf is in the nucleus of the Andean cultures: it is chewed ritually, in group, making a ball that stays under the cheek and that it goes disintegrating alone. It is a natural energy that calms the hunger and it gives strength to work or walk. One of the indigenous rights is the respect to their ancestral customs, for what they don’t consider fair that only because to some foreigners they were happened to process it and to transform it into drug, their cultivation is pursued and its culture is affected. The local legislation distinguishes cocaine for the local consumption (it is sold legally in the market) and the surplus production that would be the one that will become cocaine; but such distinction is not easy. The law prohibits the transfer of cocainr leaf leaving to the arbitrariness of the police if it is for local consumption or not. There are some 200,000 people that survive of the cultivation of cocaine. The drug dealers pay them any thing, and then they make money that is base for another refinement phase. The strategies to eradicate these cultivations are shown not very operative: it has been tried to substitute the cultivations, paying the peasants certain quantity provided that they plant another. They receive the money and destroy cocaine in that parcel; but they plant it in another part. Also, the State is poor and it doesn’t have too many resources to generalize this measure. On the other hand, the desfoliadores from airplanes affects other plants and the health of people. For you walk them, it resonates a more and more strong” scream: Wañuchun gringus. Causachun coca” (” the foreigners Die, Alive the Coca”!).


Behind the pattern of prevailing development one can discover aggressive predatory attitudes that are exercised not only against the weakest, but also against Nature. The world financial institutions – the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Organization of Trade (OMC) – are institutional forms of violence that perpetuate and contribute to the violent culture in the economy, they make poorer the poor and richer the rich. They are also broadly responsible for the degradation of the environment, for example: promoting the uni-dimensional culture. The applied genetic engineering to food is affecting the biodiversity and it has counteractive effects to health and to the atmosphere. Trade and atmosphere are intimately related. The degradation of the atmosphere increases the pain of the poor and of the woman. It is the culture of violence, coupled with power of dominance, said Pope John Paul II in their encyclical” Vitae” Evangelium, when it enumerates the different aspects of the culture of violence and death exercised against human beings and against creation.

One of the main causes of war is the ambition of natural resources. If we shovel the map of the current conflicts and the map of the oil locations and their aqueducts, we would see that they coincide. But the wars of the future will be, very probably for water. Iraq doesn’t only have big reserves of petroleum, but also Tigris and Euphrates, the main rivers in the desert region of the Middle East, and in Africa, countries of the region will de disputing the rivers Nile and Niger. The ambition of indigenous territories with natural resources is like we saw, another source of conflicts. In Mexico, to favour the Treaty of Free Trade of North America the constitutional norm was repealed that guaranteed the inalienability of public land and indigenous communal and peasant lands. With the new legislation it was sought to condemn the public land of San Salvador of Atenco to build a new airport. This caused massive fight of the peasants that finally could avoid. In the same way, wars are occasion of environmental destruction. It is said, for example that the pollutive emissions to the war in Iraq overcome Hussein are supposed lethal gases. If we are able to stop wars, we will be able to save the life of millions of human beings and to save the environment that is being contaminated by toxic gases and chemical weapons.

The war and the Colombian petroleum

Undoubtedly, the lingering war of Colombia is the most serious conflict in the Continent, with risk to extend to the whole Andean area (Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru).

Now then, according to Stratford. Reputed agency specialized in intelligence – the main objective of United States in Colombia is petroleum, over and above the eradication of drugs. “The highest priority of the Bush administration is to protect oil areas of Colombia that are vital and to assure other rural areas where there are reserves of petroleum so that companies of E.U. Can begin their s exploration under safe-deposit conditions that allow it. This explains the rising of restrictions so that the help given in the past can be use to combat guerrillas and paramilitary, as well as the approval of almost 100 million dollars to endow a brigade of the Army that will be devoted exclusively to protect the pipeline Pipe Lemon-Coveñas. The Western American multinational exploits this pipeline; but there are also interests of Exxon-Mobil, British Petroleum, Unocal, Texaco and Phillips Petroleum. These companies have invested more than 25 million dollars from 1996, making lobby in the Congress to help the Colombian Government to protect areas where crude oil exists and that it is connected with the reserves of the whole Andean area. For E.U., before the unstable situation of Venezuela and of Middle East, Colombia could be a good alternative. That it be materialized, first it is necessary to snatch to guerrillas and paramilitary the control that today exercises in the areas of interest. When making it, of course, it would also decrease the traffic of drugs these remote regions where narcotics are cultivated.[32]

Cacarica and the illegal deforestation [33]

 About ten years ago, the communities Afro-Americans of Choco suffered the most merciless plunder in their territory. Located in the basins of the Artrato – a drained river could lay down important bases for an alternating transoceanic channel to that of Panama -, apart from their geographical position, the territory is rich in biodiversity, wood and certain aquatic plants that could be manufacture to quality paper. Their ancestral inhabitants were evicted with violence; but instead of scattering they were able to remain united in camps and to fight for their return. This was possible thanks to their project of becoming Communities of Peace” that gave up to support none of the groups armed in conflict. However, they are object of multiple pressures. Among all, the timber companies. Taking advantage of the situation of paramilitary pursuit, and probably having their support, they carry out an illegal deforestation, ignoring the agreements between the people and the Government.

In short a time on their way to the place where they were expelled, they denounced in the face of the authorities (concretely, before the Secretary of the Environment) the irrational and illegal deforestation driven by the Madarién, company requesting to investigate, to clarify and to sanction the culprits; but the authorities have not carried out background stocks. Before the pressures of the inhabitants who have interviewed with Human of the World in Germany and USA, the company changed strategy. They are buying land that are not in the process of the Community, through dummies, these in turn extract the trees with chainsaws and they give wood to the company.[34]


       The current technology conditioned the actual model of predatory development unjust and violent. It also modified all the cultural rules: family life, communication, leisure, nutritious diet, medicine, sexuality, etc. The publicity and the massive means foment the desire of well being, of autonomy, of consumption, of travelling, of having something that they don’t have. Our Planet will only be able to have the population’s viable future if wide sectors, at global level, decide to abandon the present model. It is completely unthinkable that the level of life of the rich countries could extend to all. They would be necessary for it the resources of at least other two similar planets. Therefore, more than to seek to extend the level of life from the First World to all the inhabitants of the planet, would be necessary to take conscience that we live in a planet of limited resources that 2025 debit side to sustain to 8 thousand million people. This will require the renouncement to our waste habits and waste. A light of hope starts to appear as an alternative model called sustainable development. This model will be characterized by the following basic principles:

 1.Awareness of living in a world of limited resources. This brings us to take care what we have, to enjoy and to learn how to live with just enough, for that which requires to imagine and to rehearse a simple lifestyle, adapted to nature that it loves and impel life, beginning with itself and to diffuse this spirit in the population’s wide layers. It requires change of attitudes, in relationships and in the structures. It asks to incorporate the relational securities toward solidarity, moderation and voluntary” simplicity[35]. The best way to achieve it will be education.

2. To promote a new economic world order, changing the unjust structures. They make it pressing the powers of those that economic and political decisions depend, on national and international levels, so that they include the perspective of the environment, convinced that the international agreements will integrate economy and environmental strategies. It should put on ethical limits to the transnationals corporations and their principle of greater profits, and to investigate and adopt alternating energy models to energy fossils.

3. The ecological culture is inseparable from the culture of respect to human rights, especially those of women, of children, of old people, of the handicapped, of the refugees and of other vulnerable groups. To promote the culture of peace and of non-violence, as well as the transformation of the unjust structures that generate and maintain poverty to a great multitude. It won’t be able to sustain a society in which these rights are harmedviolence and injustice.

 The ecological justice and the economic justice, one political platform [36]

 The attainment of the previous objectives will only is achieved working with all those that pursue similar ideals from its respective faith or vision. This brings nearer the environmentalist movement with political movements that pursue a radical transformation of society. Ecological crisis and social crisis obey, in good measure, to identical mechanisms. One development model articulates production and consumption and it guides them, not so much to satisfy social necessities, as much as to maximize profit. The interests of big economic dictatorship of the market, the world order driven by the WTO, IMF, BM, G7. causes the diminution of human beings as much as the degradation of nature. The answer to both crises demands a transformation of current societies. A rational ecology could affect inevitably main economic pillars of the dominant system (agriculture-industry, oil, nuclear industry, transport and automobiles, chemistry, etc.). To be effective it will have to create favourable relationships, to identify radical injustice to the neoliberal pattern and to integrate it to a collective fight. Otherwise, it runs the risk of being used by dominant forces against the populations and dominated social groups. Therefore, the environmentalists cannot detach relationships of power, they will have to come closer to those who are fighting in the political and social field, contributing, at the same time, a perspective less idealized. We can adduce some examples:

  • Public transportation. – Inside the market, logic of competition, they favour growth of routes, the diffusion of particular automobile, the transport of goods by pollutive trucks, etc. on the other hand, the social demands (cheap public transportations, network covering the whole territory, working norms and acceptable wage) and ecological (reduction of the most polluting means of transport and those that require energy) impose the necessity of the collective transport in the logic of public service that doesn’t have as motor the search to maximize lucre.
  • The fight against contamination. – Ecological fight and social fight demand an alternative logic to that of the dominant economic groups, regarding human costs (health, prices, etc.) and natural (the biodiversity) of the contamination, as well as to oppose the economic interests that degrade the atmosphere (the preponderance of automobile, of the agro industry, the contamination and increase of the cost of the water, the nuclear lobby and the accumulation of radio-active residuals, etc).
  • The defense of employment. – A politics of environmental protection generates employments in countless sectors. The dominant economic logics that exploit nature intensively are the same things that cause unemployment. E.g. the agro industry reduces employment and causes rural exodus due to the growing desert fields. The automobile industry discharges massively, increases the contamination and a model of immoderate urban growth. An ecological alternative allows distributing better (and therefore to increase) the employment, assuring a decentralization of production.
  • To abolish the system of debt. – The” development through indebtedness”, impelled by the financial powers of the North, favoured the control of the political economy of debtor nations of the South and the invigoration of the powers of the IMF and of the World Bank. The debt services of OMC have dramatic consequences to human societies (destruction of social protection) as well as to nature (destruction of the natural resources for export).
  • Reduction of social inequality. – The ecological fight will only have a future inside a democratic” mass movement ” that involves wide sectors. But it will never get it if the” ecological” reforms had for consequence to increase the social inequalities. The ecological fight must reinforce the solidarity between the north and the south and to avoid that the south pays the price of the development of the north.
  • Reduction of working time, development of free time. – The social and ecologically less expensive realization of many tasks would be facilitated dedicating them more time… The ecological demand is connected this way with the question of free time and the fight to multiply workstations thanks to the reduction of Labour Day.

 Interpellated Christian

 The ideal of Jesus of a Kingdom of fraternity is incompatible with all system of exploitation, oppression and discrimination that is now organized at global level. The spirit of Blessedness pushes us to work with the spirit of the poor to fight poverty; hunger and thirst for justice” to transform the structures; with attitudes of” non-violence” to be entitled to possess the Earth, with those are united and merciful, with those that cry, with the manufacturers of peace to defend with effectiveness the rights of all human beings”; clean of heart” not to muddle relationships with selfish interests and to be able to, to see to God” in those that suffer.

 Christians understand creation like a community of interconnected beings one with the Trinitarian God. Our biggest contribution to the world must be witness, by our lifestyle, of the reality of the cosmic fraternity. Pope John Paul II declared, “The Christian, in particular, should take conscience that his duty toward nature and creation is essential part of his faith.”[37] Our task consists on contemplating the presence of God in all things, and this takes us to a conversion of heart, starting point to respond to the crisis of our planet. This ecological conversion should reach to the deepest of our to thinking and of our acting. It requires developing a spirituality of what is sufficient and a mystical contemplation of fraternity with Creation. We have a debt towards future generations, as the Indians from North America would say: “it is not true that we have inherited the Earth from our ancestors. Rather we borrowed it from our grandsons.”

  Campobasso, Italy, April 24 2004.


[1] Paper preseneted during the National Charity Convention of Italy: “responsabilitá per l’Ambiente: gesti di amore per il Cielo e la Terra”, Campobasso, April 23-25 2004

[2] “Ecocide” (ecocidio) Dr. Fernando Cesarman used to refer to the death inflicted to the vital habitat en general: “Ecocide: Destruccion of environment” Jose Ortiz Mexico, 1972

[3] All energy inevitable emits a certain amount of heat. Negentropia intends to recover part of this heat using alternate technology

[4] The Observer, London July 2002

[5] Its juvenile mortality rate is relatively law (7 per thousand)

[6] Air contamination indicator

[7] Ricardo Sanchez, regional director of United Nations program for the environment (PNUMA)

[8] Report of the Energy Information Administration EIA July 15, 2001 Reuter/La Jornada

[9] Time: October 30, 2002

[10] “Agua: Despilfarro, escasez y contaminación” Por el Dr. Marcos Sommer. ÖKOTECCUM Alemania.  

[11] Subject: Alert: deforestation of Amazons. “Oficila deforestation project half of Amazonia

[12] Message trasmitted via Internet, October 8, 2000

[13] 27/06/01

[14] Birch, Charles, William Eakin, Jay McDaniel, eds., Liberating Life: Contemporary Approaches to Ecological Theology (New York: Maryknoll, Orbis Books, 1990), 146

[15] The Letter of the Earth is a declaration of fundamental principles with the objective of forming a just, sustainable and peaceful society in the 21st century. It has been the result of a process of more than a decade of intercultural dialogue worldwide in an open consultation and participation that resulted to an international document.

[16] “Plan 21: A good plan, weak implementation”, Department of Public Information of the United Nations DPI/2244 — Januay 2002.

[17] The organization of this symposium was entrusted to PNUMA and to the Council of Earth under the auspices of PNUD, CEPAL and World Bank. See Site:

[18] “Lo ecológico y lo social: combates, problemas, marxismos”, Pierre Rousset.

[19] “Lo ecológico y lo social: combates, problemas, marxismos”, o.c..

[20]“¿Quién debe a quién? Recolectando la Deuda Ecológica”, por Aurora Donoso, Amigos de la Tierra/Acción Ecológica (Ecuador). Citado por Rose Fernando FMM: “Hacia una justicia ecológica como modo de vida: El futuro del planeta está en peligro. Dado que somos parte del problema, Somos también parte de la solución”. Comisión JPIC, UISG/USG,Marzo de 2001.

[21] “Agua: Despilfarro, escasez y contaminación” Por el Dr. Marcos Sommer. ÖKOTECCUM Alemania.

[22] Consejo Nacional Campesino, México, febrero 15 de 2003

[23] “Toda persona tiene derecho a un nivel de vida adecuado que le asegure, así como a su familia, la salud y el bienestar, y en especial la alimentación, el vestido, la vivienda, la asistencia médica y los servicios sociales necesarios; tiene asimismo derecho a los seguros en caso de desempleo, enfermedad, invalidez, viudez, vejez u otros casos de pérdida de sus medios de subsistencia por circunstancias independientes de su voluntad.” (Declaración Universal, art. 25)

[24] Harlem Brundtland, directora general de la OMS, con motivo del Día del Niño, 6 abril 2001.

[25] Thomas Berry, The dream of the Earth, San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1988, p. 206.

[26] DECLARACIÓN DE VALENCIA: “Los miembros de la comunidad mundial tienen obligaciones y responsabilidades colectivas, así como individuales, de respetar, proteger y preservar el carácter único y la diversidad de todas las formas de vida y preservar y promover un medio ambiente apropiado para el mantenimiento de todas las formas de vida. Para ello:

  1. a.Los estados, los agentes no estatales pertinentes, incluyendo el sector privado y las personas tienen la obligación de proteger y preservar la estabilidad y la calidad del medio ambiente mundial, regional y local y de utilizar los recursos naturales, de forma que se consiga la preservación y protección de la bio-diversidad.
  2. b.Los estados, los agentes no estatales pertinentes, incluyendo el sector privado y las personas, tienen la obligación de conservar los recursos naturales e impedir la degradación y la destrucción del medio ambiente por el abuso, la explotación y el consumo excesivo. (Declaración de Valencia, art. 9)

[28] 1. El derecho al desarrollo es un derecho humano inalienable en virtud del cual todo ser humano y todos los pueblos están facultados para participar en un desarrollo económico, social, cultural y político en el que puedan realizarse plenamente todos los derechos humanos y libertades fundamentales, a contribuir a ese desarrollo y a disfrutar del él.

   2. El derecho humano al desarrollo implica también la plena realización del derecho de los pueblos a la libre determinación, que incluye, con sujeción a las disposiciones pertinentes de ambos Pactos internacionales de derechos humanos, el ejercicio de su derecho inalienable a la plena soberanía sobre todas sus riquezas y recursos naturales. (Declaración sobre el Derecho al Desarrollo, Asamblea General de la ONU, resolución 41/128, 4 de diciembre de 1986, Art. 1).

[29] Celestino Navarro. Esquerra Unida País Valencia. Área de Paz y Solidaridad

[30] La Jornada, México, 27 de marzo 2004.

[31] Por Marjon van Royen, NRC HANDELSBLAD, Holanda. 30 diciembre 2000. INWAC-NOTICIAS.

[32] Sergio Gómez Maseri, “El Tiempo”, Octubre 30 De 2002.

[33] Bogotá y Asentamiento “Nueva Vida”, Colombia, Latinoamérica, Mayo 31 del 2.000

[34] Comunidades de Autodeterminación, Vida y Dignidad del Cacarica. Comunicado 189

[35] Rose Fernando: o.c.

 [36] “Lo ecológico y lo social: combates, problemas, marxismos” o.c..

[37] John Paul II: “Message of Peace 1990”