Footnotes

Footnotes

 

1   M. ALSINA, circular Una nueva Provincia [A New Province], Anales, 10 (1906), p. 578.

2   N. GARCÍA, La Formación Religiosa, Misionera y Claretiana [circular on Religious, Missionary and Claretian Formation], Annales 39 (1947), p. 73.

3   XV GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 40 (1949-1950), p. 128. Cf. also J.Mª Palacios, cmf, Notas históricas sobre la formación en la Congregación [Historical Notes on Formation in the Congregation] and the bibliographical summary of the Appendix 1 in the General Plan of Formation.

4   We should remember that the Constitutions of the Congregation in their various editions and adaptations constitute the basic formative frame. All later reflections and orientations emanate from them.

5   In addition to this volume, another one is in the process of preparation with some monographic themes on typically Claretian formation, such as: personal accompaniment; the presence of Mary, Mother and Formatrix; preparation for the noviciate, perpetual profession and sacred orders.

6   Cf. CC., 1857, nn. 5, 41.

7   Cf. J. ÁLVAREZ GÓMEZ, CMF, Claretian Missionaries: I. Return to Origins. Quezon City 1994, pp. 407-408.

8   “I am of the opinion that when they see a young man who is well-disposed, etc., etc…, they should admit him, even if he is not a priest or even ordained, provided that he is advanced in his studies and offers hope of persevering in the Congregation, (…)” (Letter of August 4, 1858: EC. I, p. 1624).a

9   Letter of November 13, 1858: EC. I, pp. 1678-1680; cf. also Letter to Fr. Xifré dated March 6, 1863: EC. II, pp. 636-637.

10 The first student who entered the Congregation was Hilarius Brossosa. Shortly after his ordination as a Deacon, he was admitted on 1 July 1858 (Cf. MARIANO AGUILAR, Historia de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del I. Corazón de María, vol. I, Barcelona 1901, p. 100).

11 The First Assembly of the Institute (I General Chapter) was held in Vic on 28 May 1859. It was very short and focused on some ascetical and disciplinary matters (AG CMF: AD, 1,9).

12 Cf. EC. I, p. 1788.

13 Cf. EC. I, p. 1783.

14 Cf. letter to Nuncio Barili, EC. I, pp. 1835-1836.

15 Cf. AG CMF: CF, 11, 22, 9; also in J. BERMEJO, Epistolario Pasivo de San Antonio Maria Claret, II, 1858-1864 (EPCL), Madrid 1994, pp. VIII, 821; quoted in pp. 350-353.

16 Cf. letter of 12 August 1859: EC. II, p. 16.

17 Cf. J.M. LOZANO, Constitutiones y Textos sobre la Congregación de Misioneros (CCTT) (Constitutions and Texts on the Congregation of Missionaries), Barcelona 1972, pp. 609-610.

18 Cf. AG CMF: BA, 2, 3, 1.

19 Cf. EC. II, p. 210.

20 Cf. EC. II, p. 147.

21 Cf. EC. II, p. 279.

22 Cf. C. FERNÁNDEZ, La Congregación de los Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, vol I, Madrid 1967, pp. 237-238.

23 Cf. C. FERNÁNDEZ, o.c. pp. 242-247.

24 As we shall explain later (IV, 2), the Chapter dealt on matters referring to the aspirancy, the noviciate, consecration and definitive incorporation into the Congregation.

25 “I whiled away the time writing some notes regarding the studies and I had no time. Here they are just as they were at the time of writing this letter” (Cf. letter of 12 August 1859: EC II, p. 16).

26 Cf. J.M. LOZANO, CCTT, P. 610. In the mind of Fr. Claret the study of languages was very important toward the universal mission. He himself cultivated them (Cf. J.M. PALACIOS, El estudio personal de las lenguas en San Antonio Ma. Claret [Personal Study of Languages according to St. Anthony M. Claret]: Studia Claretiana, IX (1991), pp. 81-107) and frequently recommended them to the seminarians (cf. El colegial o seminarista teórica y prácticamente instruido [The Well Instructed Seminarian] v. I, Barcelona 1860, pp. 202-203; v. II, Barcelona 1861, pp. 406-407) and to the missionaries in formation of the Congregation (cf. later on, when speaking of the formative Regulations).

27 Cf EC, II, p. 509.

28 “By this letter I wish to inform you that, considering how important it is to train well in knowledge and virtue the young men that God may call to our Congregation, I have thought of writing these regulations. I enclose them in this letter so that they will be put into practice everywhere, because this is the will of God and of the Blessed Virgin Mary, our beloved Mother” (Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Madrid, 20 December 1962: EC II, pp. 576-577).

          The last words of the Saint have been interpreted in the Congregation as if God and the Blessed Virgin had especially inspired the Regulations (Cf. A. LARRAONA, Los Capítulos de las Constituciones relativos a los estudiantes y al Prefecto [The Chapters of the Constitutions that refer to the Students and the Prefect]: Studia Claretiana, I (1963), pp. 8-41).

29 In order to complete the information, in addition to the above mentioned study by Larraona, Cf. J.M. LOZANO, CCTT, pp. 271-298; J.Mª VIÑAS, La Formación del Misionero en la Congregación según el Padre Fundador San Antonio Mª Claret [Formation of the Missionary in the Congregation according to our Father Founder St. Anthony M. Claret]: Cuadernos de Formación Claretiana, 1, General Prefecture of Formation, Roma 1987, p. 24; J.Mª VIÑAS, La formación de los novicios misioneros según el Padre Fundador, San Antonio Mª Claret [Formation of the Missionary Novices in the Congregation according to our Father Founder, St. Anthony M. Claret]: Cuadernos de Formación Claretiana, 2, General Prefecture of Formation, Roma 1988, p. 20.

           These Regulations were so important in the future organisation of formation in the Congregation, that:

           1st. They went on to form part of the constitutional text with some variations. In fact, they were included as an Appendix to the Constitutions of 1862 (the same as those of 1857, with the variations introduced by the General Chapter of 1862) and were sent thus to Rome for their approval in the early months of 1863. Later, the Appendix went on to form part of the constitutional text approved for a ten-year period on 25 December 1865. Finally, it was permanently integrated into the text of the Constitutions when they were definitively approved on 11 February 1870, and when they were modified in 1924.

           2nd. Through their insertion in the Constitutions, the bases were laid for the organisation of the academic formation and for carrying out the studies that were later developed in the Congregation (Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, circular letter De studiis in Congregatione impense fovendis [On the studies to be diligently fostered in the Congregation], Annales, 45 (1959-1960), pp. 155-156; also, Ordo Studiorum Generalis (O.S.G.), Rome 1959, Proemium, pp. X-XII).

30 Cf. J. Mª VIÑAS, 2, n.12.

31 “(…) and if, during these days, they should give some hope of being fit for the Congregation, at the end of this period, they should begin the year of probation” (n. 14).

32 Cf. n. 14.

33 These are the concrete occupations given to them: “1st. Reading and understanding the Constitutions and practices of the Institute. 2nd. Forming their spirit in accord with the same Constitutions, by making Spiritual Exercises and, within them, a general confession since their use of reason. 3rd. Drafting and writing resolutions in conformity with the perfection required by the new state. 4th. Using the rest of the time to do whatever else the Master may dispose” (n. 13).

34 “It is indispensable that he who is called by God to a vocation as sublime and important as the apostolic ministry, be adorned with the virtues suitable to it” (n.1)

           “Nothing is so important to the Missionaries, nothing so essential for them, as the adornment of all virtues. Without them, their talent is useless; their voice, sterile; their entire work, inane. Therefore, their desires, their first attention should be directed to attaining them. And, since the year of probation is intended to lay the foundation of all virtues, all members, Priests as well as Students or Adjutant Brothers, should painstakingly put into practice the most efficacious means to this end” (n. 15).

35 Cf. n. 15.

36 Cf. nn. 16-22.

37 “Lastly, after finishing the year of probation, if they are decided and resolved to remain in the Congregation, and if they possess the qualities suitable to a good Missionary, they should fervently make a ten days’ retreat, which will serve as immediate preparation for their definitive admission. This will be done by a solemn act of consecration to God and to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. This consecration will entail the oaths of permanence in the Congregation till death and of not accepting any ecclesiastical dignity without the express mandate of the Superior General or the Supreme Pontiff; they are the only two persons empowered to dispense from these oaths. And in order that no one be deprived of the double merit of their acts, the Superior may authorise the simple vows, temporary or perpetual, to those who are willing to make them” (n.24).

38 Cf. n. 1.

39 Ib. n. 9.

40 Ib. n. 1.

41 “The first obligation is toward God and the Most Blessed Virgin, to whom he should be very devout in order to obtain those lights that he needs to perform his duties well” (n. 2).

42 “The second, toward the Superior to whom he should be most faithful, acting always with subjection to him and never authorising anything contrary to his dispositions or to his expressed or presumed will” (n. 3).

           “If he should observe anyone without vocation or possessing bad habits, which he should watch very carefully, he should give him suitable advise, and inform the superior without delay. He should also frequently inform the superior regarding the talent, health and other qualities of each one. To this end, he should have a ready list of all of them” (n. 8).

43 The third is toward his charges. For them he should be a Father, painstakingly looking after their health of mind and body; a Teacher, teaching them all virtues by word and example, and a Physician, inquiring after their maladies, and prescribing the remedies suitable to the sicknesses and temperaments of each one” (n. 4).

44 “For the soul: With earnest he should give them ascetical conferences aimed to their growth, and should ascertain whether all of them punctually make their meditation, spiritual reading, visits to the Blessed Sacrament and the examination of conscience. He should always be with them during recreations, and instil into them a spirit of detachment from country, parents and relatives, a spirit of mortification and self-denial. He should never allow them to go to the parlour alone, or to have particular friendships. And to avoid these, he should be very watchful, very demanding regarding silence, and must never tolerate that they should enter into another’s room. In addition, he should see to it that everyday they change companions during recreation” (n. 6; cf. also n. 7).

45 “He must give great attention to those who are in the year of probation because of the special temptations they are subjected to. Therefore, he should patiently listen to them, even though they may be childish or annoying; he should encourage and strengthen them, giving them sound and prudent advice. If anyone is sad or depressed, the Novicemaster should immediately call him, ascertain the cause and apply the necessary remedy” (n. 7; cf. also, 8).

46 “For the body: He should make sure that they have all they need in clothing and food; that no one is working beyond his capacity, or studying in an unhealthy physical position, or at forbidden hours. He must see to it that no one is carried away by idleness or laziness and, finally, that no one practises penances unauthorised by the Constitutions, without permission from the Superior. In the same way, he should see to it that no one is absent from the recreations that are prescribed for reasons of health” (n. 5).

47 Cf. n. 4.

48 “(…) but, since this is a heavy burden, he may have a helper with the name of Auxiliary” (n.9).

49 “The Auxiliary should be chosen in the same way and should have the same spirit and the same qualities as the Novicemaster” (n. 10).

           “His duties are to substitute for the Novicemaster and to do, in the latter’s absence or defect, whatever has been said for him, giving him later an exact account of whatever happened. In all these he should bear in mind that, just as his merit will be great if he fulfils this task satisfactorily, his responsibility will be equally grievous if he fails” (n. 11).

50 Our Fr. Founder’s text on the Students and the Pedagogue had several versions (Texts A, B, C, D). Normally we shall refer to text A (in some particular cases, also to B) because it was the first one drafted by the Founder and, therefore, the most spontaneous and charismatic. We shall quote them by the paragraph numbers. When it was incorporated as an Appendix to the Constitutions of 1862, as we mentioned earlier, the numeration (between 166-185) follows that of the constitutional text. The regulations for the students and the prefect (pedagogue) constitute just one body, and are distributed among chapters XV and XVI (Cf. J. M. Viñas, o.c., I, pp. 10-11).

51 Cf. n. 166.

52 “(…) in truth there should be no other aim than making oneself ever more suitable to promote always the greater glory of God and the welfare of people. Therefore, they should pray the Lord to make them his apt ministers, powerful in words, deeds and examples” (n.171).

           “The Pedagogue should think of the excellence of the task that has been entrusted to him, which is no less than forming virtuous, learned and suitable missionaries (…) (n.181).

           “Their only motivation should be the glory of God whom they should ceaselessly ask to make them apt ministers of his word, in order to spread his Name and promote his Kingdom throughout the entire world” (n. 28b, text B).

53 “(…) They should make their prayers with care and fervour, they should foster great devotion to the Most Holy Sacrament, to the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Michael, St. Aloysius Gonzaga, etc….” (n. 169).

54 “They should make the offering of works. They should have half hour of mental prayer, on their knees at the beginning and end, but they could stand in between. They should hear or serve the Holy Mass and receive communion on the days their Director will allow them, which should be at least once a week” (n. 167).

55 “They should all have the Holy Bible and read daily from it two chapters in the morning and two more in the afternoon. They should also read one chapter from Rodríguez everyday, except Friday when, instead of Rodriguez, they should read the Passion of Jesus, and Saturday, when they should read about the Blessed Virgin” (n. 168).

56 “At the same time, the students should cultivate their intellect and heart, in which they should implant science and virtue. Just as the ground, however well cultivated, will bear no fruit if it has no water, the same will happen with the students. For this reason, they should procure for themselves the water of piety” (n.169).

57 Cf. n. 170.

58 Cf. n. 182.

59 “(…) humility is the first virtue that our students should strive to acquire, (…)” (n. 171).

           “(…) they should begin with humility of the intellect and will; therefore they should reject all thoughts of vainglory, pride and arrogance. They should not take pleasure in the functions they successfully perform, or seek praises for them; they should immediately refer them to God, thinking that they have received from God their talent and whatever they have and to God must all be returned. Otherwise, they would become thieves of God’s glory and deserve that God’s grace be withdrawn from them. They should never despise or prefer themselves to others, even if they are not bright. Ordinarily, those who lack intellectual qualities are more humble and not infrequently God makes use of them to do great things in his Church. They should always remember Jesus’ words when he tells them: “Learn from me, for I am meek and humble of heart, and you shall find rest for your souls” (n. 170).

60 “(…) the second should be an upright intention in their studies. In truth, this means that they should have no other aim than making themselves ever more suitable to promote always the greater glory of God and the welfare of people. Therefore, they should pray the Lord to make them his apt ministers, powerful in words, deeds and examples” (n.171).

61 “(…) the third virtue of students must be the dedication to study with tenacity, steadfastness and perseverance. But this dedication should not be such as to make them forget the other virtues or stifle or weaken their piety and devotion” (n. 171; cf. also n. 182).

62 “Their dedication to study must be accompanied by obedience and mortification. Obedience is exercised by studying well what the teacher prescribes, even though one may feel some reluctance. This obedience will be so much higher and more meritorious if during free time and vacation days one should review those matters that were learned in the past, so as not to forget them or to understand them better” (n. 172; cf. also 173).

63 Cf. n. 173.

64 Cf. nn. 175b, 173.

65 Cf. n. 175ª.

66 Cf. nn. 173, 175b.

67 “Nevertheless, if a particular student should have more talent and memory so that he finds extra time after learning and understanding well his lessons, he should inform the person in-charge so that the latter may give the appropriate dispositions” (n. 172b).

           “(…) And if some one should possess precocious talent and extraordinary memory so that he learns and understands his lessons ahead of the others, he should be given books or additional classes in order to get the most out of him and keep him profitably occupied, (…) (n. 184).

68 “They should practice penance, by abstaining from reading newspapers, novels and other books than those assigned by the Professor or Director, even those that deal on the same matters that are being studied. They should remember the principle that says Pluribus intentus minor est ad singula sensus [one can bite off more than one can chew]” (172b).

69 “The Superior will see to it that, on Sundays, holidays and vacation times, the students practise teaching Christian doctrine. They should also write or copy some homilies or sermons, and even memorise and pronounce them, drilling on the actions, voice and the rest, according to the oratorical rules that they should try to learn” (Text A, n. 177).

70 “During vacation months and during the free time within the year, they should review the principles of the Castilian language, and the Catalonians, those of the Catalonian language, in order to be able to express themselves accurately in the pulpit. In addition, all should learn French, which today is a real necessity in order to hear confessions of the foreigners” (Text A, n. 178).

71 Cf. n. 172.

72 “The Pedagogue should be chosen by the local Superior, for the time that he deems suitable, and he should be one of the most observant and virtuous members of the Congregation” (n. 179).

           “The pedagogue of the Students of the Immaculate Heart of Mary must be meek, kind and, at the same time, modest and dignified; he should never get angry at them, neither should he use imperious words or nicknames with them (…)” (n. 187).

73 “He should try to promote three things in the students, to wit: Piety, virtues and sciences, and all together. Regarding piety, the Pedagogue should see to it that none of the students is absent from the spiritual exercises and acts of devotion; that all do them and do them well. For this reason, he should teach them how to do mental prayer, how to hear the Holy Mass and how to receive the holy Sacraments of penance and communion. All this should be done not out of routine or because they are mandatory, but with love, fervour and devotion, getting more and more graces from these Sacraments. He must see to it that a sound balance be kept, since there are some students who dedicate so much attention to study that they abandon the Sacraments and prayer, or do them badly, reluctantly and as if by force. There are others, on the other hand, who give themselves to the frequency of the Sacraments, prayers and pious readings in such a way as to neglect their studies. These persons should be made to understand that they must cut down on their devotions so that they may be able to fulfil their obligations well; thus they will please God” (n. 182).

           “The Pedagogue should see to it that, besides their devotion, the students exercise all the virtues, especially humility, modesty, mortification of the senses, of the passions and, especially, of the will (…)” (n. 183).

74 “The Pedagogue must see to it that the students do not miserably waste time, but rather make good use of it (…). Experience teaches that the students, even if they be grown up and advanced in their studies, profit more if during the hours of study they gather in a common room, supervised by the Pedagogue. The latter, in turn, should not allow them to move until the time or period assigned to study should be finished (…) since they cannot leave the common room until after the time allotted to study is finished” (n. 184).

           Cr. also what was earlier said about the complementary studies.

75 “It is not proper to burden the students everyday with a heavy load in difficult matters: this will overwhelm and fatigue them. It is far better to give them an average load, leaving space for other easy and pleasant matters, such as languages, natural sciences, etc. In this way they study with pleasure, get less tired and the variation itself serves them as rest, and they profit much more” (n. 185).

76 “Some students are spoiled for three reasons: 1) For reading, studying or writing immediately after lunch or dinner. 2) For studying or writing with their body too stooped over their chest. 3) For being on their knees too long. The Pedagogue must be very much on the watch so that the common enemy may not snatch any of the students. He always seeks the best and in this way he renders them useless and at times takes their life away by means of these imprudent practices” (n. 186).

77 “The Pedagogue should think of the excellence of the office entrusted to him, which is no less than forming virtuous, wise and apt missionaries. O, what a great reward awaits him in heaven if he carries out his task well! If teaching the ignorant is so meritorious, what would be the merit of the Pedagogue who teaches the students of the Congregation to be good for themselves and apt to save their neighbours?” (n. 180).

78 “In order to (help the students) acquire these and other virtues, the Pedagogue (…) (should foster as) very useful the reading of Rodríguez, Escaramelli (sic) and others, over and above the talks he should be giving them” (n. 183).

79 “(…) If anyone should commit an error or fail to learn his lesson for lack of application or for any other guilty reason, the Pedagogue should admonish him and, if necessary, apply to him the penance that the Superior may deem convenient” (n. 187).

80 “Between the Superior and the Pedagogue there should always be the greatest possible harmony. The Superior should place all his trust in the Pedagogue and the latter without reservation should manifest to the former everything he sees in the students, the good as well as the evil. In addition, the Pedagogue should consult the Superior regarding the most suitable means to be used in order to remove some defect, acquire some virtue or progress in virtue or in science; he should change nothing without previous consultation” (n. 181).

           “The Pedagogue and the Superior should jointly prepare a plan or timetable according to the classes and occupations of the students” (n. 184).

81 Now we are referring exclusively to what he wrote with regard to the Congregation. Some testimonies have been gathered by J. BERMEJO, Textos espirituales y formativos de San Antonio Mª Claret: Cuadernos de Formación Claretiana, General Prefecture of Formation, nn. 4A and 4B, Rome 1989, pp. 50 and 35 respectively. Our Fr. Founder wrote abundantly about priestly vocation and formation. Thus, in addition to the above mentioned work in two volumes, El colegial o seminarista teórica y prácticamente instruido, we may recall, among others, Modificaciones de los Estatutos del Seminario tridentino de Cuba, Barcelona 1854, pp. 30; Reglamento para el gobierno y régimen de El Escorial, Madrid 1861, pp. 8; La Vocación de los niños. Cómo se han de educar e instruir, Barcelona 1864, pp 134. Cf. also J. BERMEJO, o.c., 4B, nn. 128, 129, 130, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 152, 154, 155, 156).

82 “There are some who have asked to live with us, but we proceed with great tact and examine their physical and moral traits. In these matters it is necessary to exercise much caution, because a mangy sheep could contaminate the others” (Letter to Fr. Joseph Caixal, Vic 5 September 1849: EC. I. pp. 316-317; in J. BERMEJO, o.c., A4, n. 59).

           In this same line Claret repeated: “and in this matter (admitting young men) you should be very careful, lest it happen to you as it did to the Vincentians of Madrid: a great many of their young men left after they had studied in their house and been ordained, (…)” (Letter of 4 August 1858: EC. I, p. 1624; cf J. BERMEJO, ib. n. 68; cf. also n. 114).

83 “Let us pray the heavenly Father to send labourers, because the labourers are indeed few and the harvest is very big in Spain and abroad (…)” (Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Madrid, 30 November 1858: EC. I, pp 1678-1680; cf. in J. BERMEJO, o.c., 4ª, nn. 72, 82, 88, 93).

84 Aut. 794. He writes amply on this matter in a chapter that he entitles “An Important Chapter for the Congregation” (Cf. chap. X of the Continuation, 793-795).

85 “Believe me, my friend, do all you can to increase the membership of the Congregation and, if another building needs to be constructed, do it gladly and do not pay attention to the costs or to what others will say” (Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Madrid, 6 March 1863: EC. II, pp. 636-637; cf. en J. BERMEJO, o.c., 4ª, nn. 90, 99).

     “We mustn’t fall asleep (…) I trust only God and you, the members of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, and so I insist that without waste of time you should work to gather and to form young men” (Letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Aranjuez, 1 May 1863: EC. II, pp. 650-651; cf. in J. BERMEJO, Ib., 4ª, n. 90).

86 Cf. letter of 17 September 1867: EC II, pp. 1198-1200.

87 Cf. J. M. LOZANO, CCTT, pp. 633-634. According to Fr. Lozano, he wrote it around 24 June 1869. In the notes he prepared for Vatican Council I and in those he took during the same, there is plentiful material about vocations, priestly formation and seminaries. (Cf. SAINT ANTHONY M. CLARET, Escritos Autobiogáficos, edition prepared by Frs. JOSEPH M. VIÑAS and JESÚS M. BERMEJO, BAC, 1981, pp. 453-454, 456-461, 478, 480, 482-484, 486, 493-496).

88 Ib. p. 633. About vocation promotion, cf. letter to Fr. Joseph Xifré, Madrid, 8 November 1864: EC II, p. 828; cf. in J. BERMEJO, o.c., 4ª, n. 99.

89 Cf. letter to Fr. Dominic Ramonet, Madrid, 16 June 1861: EC II, pp. 316-317; in J. BERMEJO, o. c., 4ª, n. 82. Others, cf. also in J. BERMEJO, ib., nn. 90, 97.

90 J. XIFRÉ, Instrucción importantísima para los aspirantes a la Congregación de Misioneros del Inmaculado Corazón de María, in J.M. LOZANO, CCTT, pp. 617-625. It was published for the first time in the “Revista Católica,” of Barcelona, on 20 June 1862, before the II General Chapter (7-14 July), and was re-printed in the same magazine as soon as the Chapter was over, on 10 August of the same year. The second publication, with amendments made by the Fr. Founder, echoes the changes introduced by the Chapter in the Congregation. The Instruction appears again in Perpignan in the form of a leaflet, amended in its presentation and contents. It was published by the Superior General (Fr. J. Xifré) clearly for vocation promotion purposes, on 20 November 1872 (AG CMF: BE, 13, 1, 2) and in other diocesan bulletins (Cf. J. ÁLVAREZ GÓMEZ, o. c., pp. 416-417).

91 J. M. LOZANO, CCTT, p. 619.

92 J. XIFRÉ, Instructio pro examine personali eorum qui in Congregationem Missionariorum Immaculati Cordis B.M.V. admitti postulant [Instruction for the personal examination of those who apply for admission in the Congregation of Missionaries of the Im. Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary], Barcelona 1864, CCTT, pp. 650-660.

93 Cf. J. M. LOZANO, CCTT, PP. 647-648.

94 The novice “should place all his trust in God and in the Blessed Virgin, to whom he should wholeheartedly commend himself, and whom he should invoke very often” (J. M. LOZANO, CCTT, n. 1).

95 “He should be very humble of heart and mind (…) and in order to imitate the Divine Master, he should love scorns and consider himself as deserving them” (Ib. n. 2).

     “He should never seek himself (…) or take pleasure in what he knows (…) or in the praises he receives (…)” (Ib. n. 3).

96 “He should never be downhearted for lack of talent, or the ability necessary for his vocation, or for the many activities; neither for the many faults he commits and not even for his temptations, however bothersome and violent they may be (…)” (Ib., n. 7).

97 “Never should he allow himself to be overcome by sadness and, if he is ever surprised by it, he should have recourse to prayer; (…)” (Ib., n. 6; Cf. also n. 1, quoted earlier).

98 Ib., n. 2.

99 “In his troubles, temptations, sadness or stress he should never disclose himself to anyone but his spiritual director or his Superior” (Ib., n. 8).

           “He should hold as an indispensable principle that of manifesting all his inner life to the Director and to the Superior, to whom he should manifest all his inclinations; he should do so in accordance with the method and formula established to this effect” (Ib., n. 5).

           “He should never let himself be overcome by sadness and, if ever he finds himself surprised by it, he should have recourse to prayer. And if he does not find peace in prayer, he should disclose himself to the Superior, manifesting to him the cause, whatever it may be, even if it should come from the Superior himself” (Ib., n. 6).

100    Cf. CC., 1857, Chap.XIV, nn. 141-150.

101    [CLOTET] CMFF, Directori dels Hermanos Ajudants de la Congregació del Inmaculat Cor de Maria ó sían Instruccions prácticas para combinar los seus traballs domestichs amb lo cumpliment de la reglas de dita Congregació [Directory for the Adjutant Brothers of the Congregation of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, or Practical Instructions to combine their domestic works with the fulfilment of the Rules of the said Congregation], Vich 1858, p. 95.

           For a study about the Brothers of the Congregation, cf. E. SASTRE CMF, Los hermanos Coadjutores en las Constituciones del P. Claret y una Consueta de la casa de Vich [The Adjutant Brothers in Fr. Claret’s Constitutions and a “Consueta” (customs) of the House of Vich]: Claretianum, XXIX (1984), pp. 79-196.

102    The XIII General Chapter (1934) gave a numerical order to the Chapters of the Congregation; we follow this official numbering (Anales, 30 (1934), pp. 420-421). However, Chapters II and III were not celebrated in Vich (as General Chapter XIII affirms), but in Gracia, as it appears in the Minutes of both Chapters.

103    Cf. I GENERAL CHAPTER, AG CMF: AD, 1, 9.

104    II GENERAL CHAPTER, AG CMF, 1, 11.

105    In the morning session of 8 July it was agreed: “3rd, that in n. 5 (…) the word missionaries should be replaced by “students.” And in the afternoon session: (“1st, that in n. 13, after the word priests, the expression and students should be added” (AG CMF: AD, 1, 11).

106    Number 5 of the 1857 Constitutions said: In addition (the Congregation) will be made up of missionary Priests and Adjutant Brothers.

107    On July 9, afternoon session, it was decided to promulgate several decrees. One of them is: “2nd, that all the candidates, priests as well as students and brothers, should go through a period of 15 days as aspirants, after which they should make spiritual exercises and then be admitted to the year of probation by means of some formality. This should be repeated mutatis mutandis at the end of the year, for their definitive admission” (AG CMF, 1, 11). In this way a period of aspirancy was established for all candidates, previous to the year of probation.

108    On July 13, during the morning session, the Chapter decided, among others, this point: “4th, that a decree should be promulgated to the effect that the students should indemnify the Congregation for all expenses and losses they may have caused, but only in cases when they leave voluntarily or are expelled by their own fault” (II GENERAL CHAPTER, Minutes, AG CMF: AD, 1, 11, p. 6). This norm would later be reaffirmed through several dispositions, adding also that its fulfilment is a condition to the granting of the certificates of studies to those who would apply for them (Cf. V GENERAL CHAPTER, 1888, session 7, AG CMF: AD, 1, 22; J. XIFRÉ, El Espíritu de la Congregación, (E.C.), Madrid 1892, p. 209; CMF, Resumen alfabético de las disposiciones vigentes, [Alphabetical summary of prevailing dispositions], Madrid, 1897, n. 89, AG CMF: Library 9, 8, 53; CMF, Disposiciones Generales [General Dispositions], Santo Domingo 1900, n. 84, AG CMF: Library 10, 2, 20). From 1905 on, the norm is abolished and does not appear in any other official document.

  1. 109In the afternoon session of 4 July it was declared: “4th. That, in consonance with the spirit of the Congregation, the missionaries could dedicate themselves to the spiritual direction of the young men in the seminaries. In the same way, that it was fitting for them to hold Chairs in the seminaries, especially those of rubrics, sacred oratory and plainsong” (III GENERAL CHAPTER, AG CMF: AD, 1, 13).

110    J. XIFRÉ, circular on Ser fieles a la vocación [Being faithful to one’s vocation]: Anales, 3 (1891), pp. 245-255. It is also found in COLECCIÓN DE CIRCULARES, Madrid 1941, pp. 866, in pp. 209-220. In this and in subsequent cases, the quotations will be made according to this book, under the abbreviation ColCC.

111    J. XIFRÉ, Espíritu de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María (E.C.) [Spirit of the Congregation of Missionaries, Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Madrid 1892, pp. 235.

112    J. XIFRÉ, Ib., ColCC., p. 209; also in E.C., pp. 35-36.

113    J. XIFRÉ, E.C., PP. 35-36.

     “The word vocation is not a vague or fantastic word. It entails duties, means and promises or threats, in accordance with our correspondence” (Ib., ColCC., p. 209).

114    “Jesus Christ our Lord, who is the way, the truth and the life; Jesus Christ our Lord, who called and sends us, as the Father sent Him; Jesus Christ our Lord must be our model, our teacher, our physician, our Father, friend and refuge. Let us imitate him. Let us follow his advice, his counsels, his examples. Let us give faithful witness to him, by fervently and faithfully preaching his doctrines. Like true disciples of his, let us bravely embrace his cross, living only with him, and dying to the world, to our families, to our country and to ourselves” (J. XIFRÉ, Ib., ColCC., p. 219).

           “My dear Brothers, accept the cup that so many others have drunk, especially Jesus Christ, our divine Master; rejoice when you are persecuted” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., P. 36).

115    “(…) Remember that you should not pretend to be better than the prophets, the Apostles and Jesus Christ himself. All of them suffered, endured and lovingly embraced hunger, thirst, scourges, torments, death, (…)” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 36).

116    “But, my very dear Brothers, remaining in one’s vocation is not enough; we must live it well (…). The name of Missionary is of no avail if one is not endowed with the virtues proper of a good Missionary” (J. XIFRÉ, ColCC., p. 213).

117    “By virtue of our ministry we must be light of the world and salt of the earth. Unless we corroborate these qualities by our holiness, we will be good for nothing except to be rejected and trampled on by others (…)” (FR. XIFRÉ, Ib., ColCC., p. 213).

           “Now then, by reason of his profession, of his lofty ministry and very high office, the Missionary is bound to give witness to Christ, to represent Him fittingly and to seek the salvation and sanctification of all. He should be a mirror and a model of virtues according to the aforementioned Council (Trent); he should be irreproachable and a paragon of perfection, otherwise he will not attain or fulfil the aim of his vocation. He will lose himself and will cause a like detriment to others” (Ib., ColCC., p. 214).

118    “Beloved Brothers: it is essential for the Missionary to be an exemplar and a model of all virtues. But to attain this, one must use violence upon oneself; it is necessary to subject one’s inclinations, even the good ones. It is very important to subordinate our will and to submit our judgement to those who take the place of God. You know it and you preach it” (Ib., ColCC., p. 218).

119    J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 36.

120    “The apostles faithfully co-operated with their vocation by accurately following the prescriptions of their Divine Master” (J. XIFRE, Ib., ColCC., p. 210).

“Undeterred by difficulties, undaunted by threats or sacrifices, or even death, they made their voice resound throughout the world. And having complied with the demands of their vocation, they received the eternal reward that had been promised them” (Ib.).

121    “We then, my dear brothers, have been blessed with the divine vocation, the object of which is here expressed. The means to attain it are already indicated; and although, according to the theologians and Church Fathers, vocation is not directly obligatory, indirectly it is so. According to the same, God gives to each one the spirit of the state for which he is chosen, and prepares for him the helps and graces needed for the discharge of the duties inherent to it” (J. XIFRÉ, ColCC., p. 210).

122    “My dear Brothers: you know very well that life in this world is a continuous war; that in the state of fallen nature, it is not possible to live without temptations (…). Jesus Christ suffered them, the saints had them (…). Jesus Christ permits them in order to purify us (…)” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 37).

123    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., pp. 71-74.

124    “The greatest enemy a Missionary can have is sadness” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 74.

125    “A sad person makes virtue annoying, makes itself unfit for everything and exposes itself to all dangers and sins (…). (Sadness) is dangerous (…), intolerable in a missionary: you must preach virtue with its characteristic aspects of kindliness, appeal and joy; and this would not be possible if you are sad” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 71).

126    “(Sadness is) the weapon that Lucifer will use to tempt you and make you turn back (…). If you should ever be assailed by sadness, remember that sadness with anxiety, depression or mistrust never comes from God” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 72). About the faces of sadness, cf. pp. 72-74.

127    “We feel obliged to strongly call your attention over this matter, because it is so easy to fall into it and because of the sad effects it could have in the Missionary” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 39).

128    J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 40.

129    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 40.

130    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 40.

131    “Conceited because of their alleged knowledge, and humility being unknown to them, they despise others and pretend to be acclaimed by all as if they were oracles. Hence they look with disdain upon counsels, sermons and even the Constitutions. Such improper behaviour is more than enough evidence that such a person lives in the Congregation only in his bodi, but his heart is somewhere else, he is possessed by the enemy of his soul. As a fitting punishment for such pernicious conduct, he will soon leave or will be expelled from the Institute in which he should have been saved” (J. XIFRÉ, ColCC., p. 216).

132    “The bottom line is these persons are only imbued with pride, disaffection, antipathy and antagonism towards authority. They cannot tolerate subjection or being inferior to anyone” (J. XIFRÉ, ColCC., p. 216).

           “O pride, to what extremes you can lead! Moved by it, they keep on complaining, always under guise of zeal, and bemoaning the conduct or behaviour of Superiors, making use of any pretext to make them hateful. And what pains us most is that criticisms have been made about important matters even in Superiors who, by their behaviour and good qualities, have deserved the trust of the General Government” (Ib., ColCC., p. 217).

133    The V General Chapter, celebrated in Madrid in 1888, dealt with the expulsions and apostasies of recent years. Among the several causes that may have originated them, the Chapter presents gossips and criticisms against Superiors and their dispositions, and the lack of true humility manifested in the lack of detachment regarding tasks and assignments. Recommended remedies are the exercise of indifference and the spirit of humility and detachment (Cf. V GENERAL CHAPTER, session 3, 10 June, AG CMF: AD, 1, 22).

134    You should do the same, dearest Brothers; rejoice always in the Lord: in slanders, in calumnies and affronts, in persecutions, in works and sufferings, in sickness and in death itself. Be filled with joy because Jesus makes you partakers of his chalice, and worthy to suffer something for his sake. This, dearest Brothers, is one of the counsels I give you, which I wish you would never forget. Be joyful…, with a joy that emanates from virtue” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., pp. 70-71).

135    “But someone might say that they (the temptations) are very strong, most dangerous, and one is bound to consent. Brothers, the fact that they are strong and dangerous is no reason to lose heart. Otherwise, tell me: do you trust in God or in yourselves to overcome? If the first, I will tell you that God is all powerful to deliver you (…); understand that God is faithful not to allow you to be tempted beyond the grace and strength He wants to give you. If you trust in yourselves, I will tell you that, even should the temptation be less serious, you would fall into it” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C. p. 38).

136    “The work to which you are called is indeed great (…) but you should not lose heart. God made Moses and Joshua so strong and always victorious, He made Gideon so powerful (…), his Providence always watches over those who fight for his cause, as do the Missionaries whom God has never abandoned when they lived in humility and trust. This same God will be with us, will help us in our enterprises, will judge our cause” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 67).

           “God our Lord has always rebuked distrust, to such an extent that he could not tolerate it even in his disciples; thus he always strongly condemned it. This should not surprise us, because distrust wounds God’s providence and goodness, and therefore the offence we give by it is greater” (Ib., p. 68).

           Regarding health, “The God who gives them (second causes) direction and movement, has a very particular providence over the Missionaries. We can see it by the promises he made to his disciples when he sent them to preach, and by what we read in the history of great apostolic men” (Ib., p. 73).

137    Cr. our Chap. 1, Xifré, 2.2.

138    Therefore, Brothers, trust in God and be strengthened. Do not worry about your lack of knowledge. Study as much as you can. Ask God for it, and be sure that it will be granted to you, as He has promised: Si quis indiget sapientia, postulet a Deo, qui dat omnibus affluenter” [Should anyone lack knowledge, let him ask for it from God, who gives to all abundantly] (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 67).

139    “Therefore, if temptation ever assails you; if the enemy attracts and entices you to give up in the enterprise (…) do not be dismayed, (…) remember then the grace of vocation (…)” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 36).

140    “Therefore, Brothers, trust in God and be strengthened. Do not worry about your lack of knowledge. Study as much as you can, (…)” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 67).

141    To the question: Which are the efficacious means to persevere in it (in one’s vocation)?, Fr. Xifré answers: “1st. Profound humility, making frequent acts of this virtue” (Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., Part II, p. 164).

142    J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 74.

143    “They do not belong to us, but to God, so that we can carry out our salvation and that of others, and we will have to render strict account of the use we have made of them” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 76).

144    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., pp. 76-77.

145    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, E.C., pp. 76-77.

     In view of the importance that Fr. Xifré attaches to humility, root of all virtues and safeguard of vocation, it is not surprising to note that, directly or indirectly, he speaks of it on many occasions (Cf. circulars in E.C., Part II, pp. 37, 92, 94, 98, 99, 107, 112, 113, 127, 133, 137, 139, 164).

146    J. XIFRÉ, Relación interesante del origen y objeto de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazon de María. Estímulos y requisitos para ingresar en ella [Interesting Account of the origin and aim of the Congregation of Missionaries, Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Stimuli and requirements to enter into it], Barcelona (Gracia) 1883, pp. 4; AG CMF: BE, 13, 1, 1.

147    J. XIFRÉ, Relación sumaria del Instituto Religioso de los Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María [Summary Account of the Religious Institute of the Missionaries Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Madrid 1891, AG CMF: BA, 2, 28, 1; Madrid 1895, AG CMF: BA, 2, 28, 22.

148    Cf. M. ALSINA, Aranda de Duero 1908, AG CMF: BE, 13, 1,5; Madrid 1920, AG CMF: BE, 13, 1,4.

149    J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento especial para la admisión de individuos en clase de aspirantes en las Residencias de nuestra Congregación [Special Regulations for the Admission of Candidates as Aspirants in the Houses of our Congregation] Thuir, 17 January 1876: manuscript in AG CMF: CF, 8, 1, 15b. It was also published by Fr. John Postíus in the magazine Iris de Paz, n. 1645, January 1929, pp. 7-8.

150    “2nd. The admission of 12-year old boys is authorised if they can read and write well, show good character, and are healthy and talented: boys below that age will not be admitted, unless they have, in addition, some extraordinary talent (…). 3rd. Those who at age 15 would have to begin Latin will only be accepted as Coadjutor Brothers, unless they have extraordinary virtue and talent” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento especial…, 1876, pp. 1-2).

           The house of Barbastro had earlier organised Latin courses for some children and teenagers. The first Postulant schools of Barbastro, Alagón and Segovia were formally established in 1876 (Cf. M. AGUILAR, Historia de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del I. Corazón de María, I, Barcelona 1901, ch. XVI, p. 583; C. FERNÁNDEZ, La Congregación de los Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, Compendio Histórico, I, Madrid 1967, ch. XXVI, pp. 862 ff).

151    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento especial…. 1876, pp 2-3.

152    “(…) in conformity with what was established in the General Chapter celebrated in Madrid in 1888, and after consultation with the General Consultors, the Prefects, Masters and Professors of the aforesaid schools, we have decided to present to you the attached Regulations and Plan of Studies, hoping that, with your well known zeal and love for the Congregation, you will gladly receive them and willingly lend yourselves to keep them faithfully” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios de nuestra Congregación [Regulations for the Schools of our Congregation], in E.C., Madrid 1892, pp. 217-229).

153    Cf. Ib., pp 220-221.

154    Cf. Ib., pp 217-218.

155    “In the scientific aspect as well as in all the rest, the spirit of piety, respect and love for the Congregation should be fostered, even in the explanations and questions about the same disciplines” (Ib., p. 225).

156    Many times our Fr. Founder recalled the necessity of studying foreign languages in order to widen the evangelising action of the Missionaries. This he suggested in the first Plan of Studies for major seminaries that he drafted for the Congregation, and in the formative Regulations, as we saw in the first chapter.

157    On Thursdays and Sundays, “French should be studied during the first and second years and English during the third and fourth years. The study of Italian is recommended rather than German, when the circumstances permit it” (Ib., pp. 221-226)

158    San Francisco de Sales Press, Madrid 1894.

159    J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios de Postulantes del Instituto de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María [Regulations for the Schools of Postulants of the Institute of Missionaries Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Madrid 1894, AG CMF: 11, 4, 22, op. 100, p. 29.

160    “(…) we have prayed, we have observed and we have heard the opinion of many of our brothers so that nothing would be lacking in the present regulations, according the idea and plan we had formed for the proper functioning of these schools” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, Intruduction, p. 3).

161    “We wish (to see) in them (in the Postulant schools) uniformity, harmony and order” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, Introduction, p. 3).

           “We have come to the end of our work, long and difficult indeed. It had to be, taking into consideration the minute things we had to attend to in order to achieve the uniformity, harmony and order, which left so much to be desired” (Ib., Final notes, p. 29).

162    “(…) making our seminaries fertile grounds for virtuous and well-informed young men that in due time may give days of glory to our beloved Congregation and apt and irreproachable ministers to the Holy Church” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, Introduction, p. 4).

163    That is to say “that they (the postulants) may achieve the proper corporal development and acquire all the knowledge that the Congregation has established for that age and, above all, that they be formed in the spirit of piety, zeal and self-denial that befits the Missionary life to which they have been called” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, ch. 3, p. 9).

164    “Let the Prefect then pray much in order to obtain from heaven, especially from the Immaculate Heart of our Mother, the very special gift of forming those tender hearts for God and for our Congregation” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, ch. 3, art. 3, p. 16).

165    By means of these documents the traditional figure of the Claretian formator is being clarified. Regarding the relationship of the professors with the postulants, the book of regulations has this to say: “Once the postulants are out of the classrooms, they are once again under the immediate responsibility and care of the Rev. Fr. Prefect” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…m 1894, ch. 3, art. 2, 6th, p. 16).

166    “The third and certainly the most important duty of the Rev. Fr. Prefect towards the Postulants is forming their heart well. A Postulant, no matter how many innate talents he might have, would be ineffective if he lacked the necessary virtue for the apostolic ministry to which he has been called” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, ch. 3, art. 3, p. 16).

167    “For these particular instructions, he should see to it that all in rotation pass by his room at least once a month, in great detail looking into all that is happening and may be suitable to them according to their needs and temperaments” (J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Colegios…, 1894, ch. 3, art. 3, n. 3, p. 20). This personal contact, which in our Congregation has included spiritual direction, has become a traditional practice among us.

168    Cf. J. XIFRÉ, Reglamento para los Clegios…, 1894, ch. 3, art. 5, pp. 24-25.

169    Cf. M. AGUILAR, Historia de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del I. Corazón de María, vol. I, pp. 293-300, 574-583, 614-626; C. FERNÁNDEZ, Compendio histórico de la Congregación de los Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, vol. I, Madrid 1967, pp. 137-139; 359-386; 859-872; C. FERNÁNDEZ, La Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, vol. I, Madrid 1967, pp. 237-246; 691-707.

           As regards the formative orientations, in addition to the previous quotations, cf. F. NAVAL, Plan de un noviciado (manuscript without place or date), AG CMF: GN, 7, 9, pp. 10. He probably wrote it during his stay in Vich between 1881 and 1888. Fr. F. Naval was auxiliary and coadjutor to the Novicemaster and professor in Vich during those years; then he was a professor and later superior in Cervera from 1888 to 1901. The Plan that he wrote for the noviciate includes both novices and professed (students). He envisions a noviciate in the style of Vich, and not according to the recently established noviciate in Cervera, which was intended only for novices who were exclusively dedicated to the spiritual practices proper of the year of probation.

170    As early as 26 May 1868, Fr Clotet presented to the General Counsel this note: “General Assembly. Noviciate. It seems that it would be desirable to do it as it is done in other religious Institutes, with exclusive dedication to spiritual matters” (C. FERNÁNDEZ, La Congregación de Misioneros…, p. 242).

171    The Chapter “saw with obvious satisfaction that, with the acquisition of the grand building of the ex-University of Cervera, the road lay open for these plans: the General Government of the Congregation would be able to establish the Noviciate with all the independence that the sacred Canons prescribe. This is something that, although highly desirable, had not been viable until now. This independence would consist in separating it not only from the Scholasticate, but also from the Postulancy school” (V GENERAL CHAPTER, session 4, afternoon of 10 June 1888).

           The account of this event was published in the Boletín Religioso of the Congregation of that year. It stated: “The novices, that is, those who have finished Rhetoric, shall not devote themselves to school subjects during the year of probation; they will however take the classes befitting a perfect noviciate.” (Cf. CMF. Boletín religioso de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, 4 (1887-1888), p. 163; cf. also C. FERNÁNDEZ, Compendio histórico…, p. 869).

172    [FR. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales para uso de los novicios de la Congregación de los Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María por disposición del Rmo. P. José Xifré, Superior General de la Congregación [Spiritual Practices for the Use of the Novices of the Congregation of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, by order of the Most Rev. Fr. Joseph Xifré, Superior General of the Congregation], Madrid 1888, pp. 271.

173    About the drafting by Fr. Vallier, cf. F. MEDARDO ALDUAN, Vida del Siervo de Dios R.P. Pablo Vallier Escarín [Life of the Servant of God Rev. Fr. Pablo Vallier Escarín], Santiago de Chile 1919, pp. 320-321. J. POSTÍUS, Informe al P. General sobre la obra del P. Vallier [Report to Fr. General on the work of Fr. Vallier] (typewritten), Madrid 1928, AG CMF: GR, 04, 19. R. RIBERA, El Novicio Instruido [The well-instructed Novice], Madrid 1931, Prologue, p. IX-X). The work of Fr. Francisco J. Idiáquez is entitled Prácticas e Industrias para el uso de los Hermanos Novicios de la Compañía de Jesús del Noviciado de Villagarcía [Practices and Techniques for the use of the Novice Brothers of the Society of Jesus of the Noviciate of Villagarcía], Villagarcía, Seminary press, 1766, 12º, 152 p. 34. Fr. Postíus in his report to Fr. General makes a quite critical analysis of the book of Fr. Vallier. He recommends not to have it reprinted. He believes it is better to prepare a totally Claretian work for the novices of the Congregation.

174    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, Prologue, pp. IX-X.

175    Cf. [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, Introduction, pp. 6-7.

176    “This definition is placed at the beginning of the book so that, by looking at it from the outset, the Novice may see the goal towards which he aims and which he must achieve during his year of probation. He should read it and meditate on it many times and keep it always in sight while putting into practice all that is here proposed” ([Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, Introduction, p. 10).

177    “Every Missionary should burn with zeal for the glory of God and the salvation of souls; this must be the constant purpose of his entire life. And to this aim, even from his noviciate, he should direct his prayers, and do penance, and prepare himself in the best way possible” ([Fr. VALLIER, Prácticas Espirituales…, p. 214.)

178    “They should habitually act out of reflection, avoiding routine and thoughtlessness in their actions, which is like a woodworm that frequently renders useless religious life and all resources, even extraordinary ones” ([Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…, Introduction, p. 6).

           “In reality, the principal aim of all the practices proposed to the Novices in this book is to form their spirit, getting them accustomed to act in everything with thoughtfulness, and never out of habit or routine, as was mentioned in the introduction” (Ib., Conclusion, p. 211).

179    The novices, like the Apostles (Mt. 13, 36-40) must enter into dialogue with the Master in order to be enlightened and oriented in their life. To that end, they should seek information from the Master in the community conferences or in private conversation (Ib., pp. 98-99).

180    Cf. [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…, Conclusion, p. 211.

181    Cf. [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…,, pp. 115-116.

182    [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…,, p. 115.

183    “When a Novice is tested in humble tasks, he should not think that that is a passing trial; when he sweeps, when he serves others, let him do it with the intention and the desire to do it for life, if this be God’s will and the direction of the Superiors, convinced that it is a great honour to serve God and give him glory in this way” ( [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…, Conclusion, p. 214-215).

184    “1. He who truly humbles himself encounters the grace to win. 2. Any temptation humbly borne, is a weight that makes us sink in the useful knowledge of our misery. 3. Humility in temptation opens our eyes to see that, without God, we shall fall” ([Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…,, pp. 184-185).

185    “We have placed at the beginning of the book the definition that our Fr. Founder gave of the Missionary of the Heart of Mary. In it is described a spirit in the third degree of humility. A man who looks only at God, desires only God, and for himself seeks only privation, works, sacrifices (…). For the glory of God and the honour of his Most Blessed Mother, may the Lord grant that all Missionaries may at least aspire always in desire and in action to this sublime degree” ( [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas espirituales…, Conclusion, p. 216-217).

186    Cf. [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, Conclusion, pp. 214-215.

187    Cf. [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, p. 17. As his daily offering, the novice should say the following prayer: “I open in your presence, O God, the innermost part of my heart, and I offer from my poverty all the wealth of my affections. In your honour I offer all the works and deeds of this day, united to the merits of the life, passion and death of Jesus, of his Most Blessed Mother and of the Saints. I offer you the gold of charity, the incense of prayer and the myrrh of penance” (Ib., p. 18).

188    The search for the glory of God is present in all the sections of the pedagogical manual. Its methodology leads to it. Each chapter, by beginning with a gospel text as reference for a concrete activity, is already directing to the Lord the intentions, affections and works of the novices.

189    Cf. [VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, pp. 171-182.

190    [VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, Conclusion, pp. 196-203.

191    For the detailed learning of some practical things that would improve the skills of the brothers, there are some Apuntes útiles [useful notes] drafted by themselves in Cervera in 1895 (Cf. AG CMF: 7, 4,2).

192    Cf. J. CLOTET, Conferencias de los hermanos ayudantes [Conferences for the Adjutant Brothers] in Boletín Religioso CMF, 2 (1886), pp. 365-368).

193    Cf. Boletín Religioso CMF, 2 (1886), pp. 365-368.

194    Fr. Xifré’s Reglamento of 1892 was written for the “seminaries of our Congregation” and for the “spiritual and scientific benefit of the young Students of our seminaries” (cf. Introduction); in fact it speaks of the postulants and of the professed.

           About the Prácticas Espirituales, Fr. Xifré, in the introduction to the Avisos importantes a los Estudiantes Profesos (about which we will speak later) says this: “It is not our intention to speak directly of the holiness that every Professed Student should have, or of the means to attain it. The way is already indicated in our Constitutions and, should anything be lacking, everything desirable to this effect is already expressed in the Prácticas Espirituales that was published for the novices (…)” (J. XIFRÉ, E.C., p. 187); cf. also [Fr. VALLIER], Prácticas Espirituales…, pp. 8, 156-162.

           This pedagogical application continued later for several years. Although Fr. Serrat’s Reglamento of 1900 is addressed to the postulants, in a note in the Introduction it says: “the Prefects of Professed Students and their Auxiliaries, as well as the Novicemasters and their Coadjutors, may proportionately adopt what is prescribed in this Reglamento for the Prefects of Postulants and their Assistants.” This same ides is repeated in the Introduction to the edition of Fr. Alsina’s Reglamento of 1907, in the General Dispositions of 1900 (n. 100) and 1905 (nn. 138 and 145), and in El Novicio Instruido, (Madrid 1931) by Fr. Ribera, pp. XI, 414-445).

195    Cf. J. CLOTET, Reglamento para los estudios eclesiásticos de los Hijos de Inmaculado Corazón de María [Regulations for the ecclesiastical studies of the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], en Boletín Religioso CMF, 2 (1886), pp. 231-232, 260-263, 277-280 and 294-295.

196    Cf. Ib., p. 232.

197    J. XIFRÉ, Avisos Importantes a los profesores de los colegios [Important Advices to the Professors of our Seminaries], Imp. Antonio Pérez, Madrid 1889. They were also published in E.C., pp. 163-184; we shall quote this last publication.

198    Ib., p. 183.

199    Cf. Ib., pp. 164-165, 172.

200    Cf. Ib., pp. 165-166.

201    Cf. Ib., pp. 164-165. As a general norm, in order to attend to their mission better, the Professors were not allowed to take other ministries.

202    Cf. Ib., pp. 166-172.

203    “Our professors, therefore, should be models of virtue and observance. There should be nothing in them unworthy of the office they hold. They should be truly pious. They should fervently commend to the Lord and to our Blessed Mother, the disciples entrusted to them. In this way, and in no other way, will they be able to fulfil their duties perfectly” (Ib., p. 173).

204    Ib., pp. 174-175.

205    Cf. Ib., pp. 174-175. As it appears in several congregational dispositions, professors should not impose punishments to our postulants and students; this is the responsibility of the Fr. Prefect.

206    J. XIFRÉ, Avisos importantes a los Estudiantes Profesos de la Congregación de Misioneros Hijos del Corazón de María [Important Advices to the Professed Students of the Congregation of Missionaries, Sons of the Heart of Mary], Antonio Pérez Press, Madrid 1890, pp. 37. They were also published in E.C., pp. 186-209; we will quote this last publication.

207    Cf. Ib., p. 187.

208    Cf. Ib., pp. 188-193.

209    In this case, he will not only tarnish the name of the Congregation and hamper the fruit of the ministry, but he will also impede the congregational growth. In view of these cases, Fr. Xifré asks himself: “Will these missionaries attract many people to enter our Institute?” (Ib., p. 193).

210    Thus, for example: “Not always are those with greater intelligence more useful to the Church, or produce more fruit in the ministry of the salvation of souls. The Apostles were uncultured, yet they converted the world.” “What is really important (…) is that we be humble and virtuous, not necessarily intellectual.” “The only thing needed for the ministry of saving souls is virtue and some enlightenment in the theological and moral matters; but the profane sciences we are handling hinder rather than help.” “The subject matters will be studied as the need arises.” “There are others who study or dedicate themselves to other things, yet they are observant and pious; I could just as well do the same” (Cf. Ib., pp. 193-197).

211    Ib,. pp. 197-209.

212    Cf. Ib., pp. 197-198.

213    “(…) it is beyond all doubt that, in order to correspond to our vocation, other sciences, albeit profane, must also be cultivated (…). Such sciences and studies are necessary to the Missionary in the present time; and this, for many reasons (…). It will be necessary, especially in these times we are going through, to acquire great scientific and literary knowledge in order to spread the true doctrines and defend the good cause” (Ib., p. 195).

214    Cf. Ib., pp. 194-196.

215    In this section we shall quote the Chapters with the abbreviation RDV that makes reference to the book: CMF, Resumen alfabético de las Disposiciones Vigentes contenidas en los Capítulos Generales y en las Circulares [Alphabetical summary of the prevailing dispositions contained in the General Chapters and in the Circulars], Madrid 1887, pp. 216.

216    IV GENERAL CHAPTER, Minutes, AG CMF: AD, 1, 15.

217    IV GENERAL CHAPTER, Minutes, ses. 7a, p. 9.

218    V GENERAL CHAPTER, Minutes, AG CMF: AD, 1, 22.

219    Cf. Ses. 9, CMF, RDV, n. 590.

220    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, nn. 56ff.

221    Cf. Ses. 4, CMF, RDV, N. 591.

222    “From here we can infer the advantage of being able to attend to the projected reform of the regulations for postulants, since it is not advisable that they follow the way of the novices and professed, both in the material and in the spiritual aspect. But, since this project requires a well-thought study for which important data must be held in view, the Chapter decided to appoint a commission to draft the bases for a book of special regulations for postulants” (V GENERAL CHAPTER, afternoon session, 10 June 1888: AG CMF: AD, 1, 22).

           This commission probably worked during the Chapter, because three days later the minutes state: “Also, the commission in charge of the bases for the regulations for postulants presented their work to the Chapter. They were read and unanimously approved, and it was agreed to keep them very much in mind as soon as the Seminaries are left with only the Postulants, once the Noviciate and the Scholasticate are established in a suitable place” (Ib., afternoon session, 13 June 1888).

223    Cf. Ses. 4, CMF, RDV, n. 592.

224    Cf. Ses. 4, CMF, RDV, n. 537.

225    Cf. Ses. 4, CMF, RDV, n. 538.

226    CC., 1870, Part III, n. 1.

227    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, n. 411.

228    Cf. Ses. 6, CMF, RDV, n. 351.

229    Cf. Ses. 9, CMF, RDV, n. 783.

230    Cf. Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 203.

231    “that is, those who manifest scorn or aversion towards any nation or province or their natives, either by criticising, or insulting, or in any other way belittling the persons, things, ways and customs of this or the other country. And it must be noted that the obligation to manifest to the respective Superiors the infringements of this or any other injunction, is incumbent upon everyone, nay, it is an act of charity towards the violator, towards the Congregation and towards people in general” (Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 676).

232    VI EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales 5 (1895-1896), Appendix.

233    Cf. Ses. 12, RDV, nn. 381, 539.

234    Cf. Ses. 14, CMF, RDV, n. 593.

235    Ses. 14, CMF, RDV, nn. 360, 422.

236    Cf. Ses. 14, CMF, RDV, n. 367.

237    Cf. Ses. 14, CMF, RDV, nn. 368, 370.

238    Cf. Ses. 19, CMF, RDV, n. 407.

239    “Lectiones nimis longas ipsis non imponere” (CC, 1870, Part I, n. 104, 9th.

240    Cf. Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 662.

241    Cf. Ses. 13, CMF, RDV, n. 670.

242    Cf. Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 488; ses. 19, nn. 408, 486.

243    Cf. CC., 1870, Part I, n. 88.

244    Cf. Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 228.

245    Cf. CC., 1870, Part II, n. 41.

246    Cf. Ses. 5, CMF, RDV, n. 282.

247    Cf. Ses. 15, CMF, RDV, n. 356.

248    Cf. Ses. 16, CMF, RDV, n. 369.

249    Cf. Ses. 16, CMF, RDV, n. 357.

250    Cf. Ses. 19, CMF, RDV, n. 204, 485.

251    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, nn. 373-375.

252    Cf. CC., 1870, Part I, n. 67.

253    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, n. 376.

254    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, n. 476.

255    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, nn. 377-378. 

256    CC., 1870, Part. I, n. 68.

257    Cf. Ses. 12, CMF, RDV, n. 379.

258    VII EXTRAORDINARY GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales 5 (1895-1896), Appendix.

259    Cf. Ses. 3, CMF, RDV, n. 589.

260    Cf. Ses. 7, CMF, RDV, n. 423.

261    Cf. Ses. 6, CMF, RDV, n. 483.

262    CMF. Resumen alfabético de las Disposiciones Vigentes contenidas en los Capítulos Generales y en las Circulares, Madrid 1897, pp. 216.

263    C. SERRAT, circular on the Vocación Religiosa, Anales, 8 (1901-1902), pp. 669-680; ColCC., pp. 228-241. Fr. Serrat translated from Italian the Avisos sobre la Vocación Religiosa [Advices on Religious Vocation] by St. Alphonsus M. de Ligorio (Cf. Librería Religiosa, Barcelona 1871, pp. 226; AG CMF: Library 5, 4, 14).

264    C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 229.

265    Ef 4, 1-3.

266    C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 231.

267    Ef, 4, 1-3.

268    “Before all else, the Apostle considers humility and meekness as the first and fundamental means of perseverance in one’s vocation” (C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 233).

269    “For this reason, humility should not be mediocre, but all-embracing, cum omni humilitate [with all humility], and under all its aspects” (C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 234).

270    “It should be born from their innermost self, feeling themselves to be very lowly, considering that their origin is dust, nothingness, sin. They should be aware that the grace of vocation and all the talents they possess are free gifts. They are mere administrators of these gifts and should diligently manage them. The glory and honour of their actions and ministries should be exclusively directed to God; only confusion should they reserve for themselves, like the author of the Imitation of Christ, soli Deo honor et gloria, mihi autem confusio [only to God be given honour and glory, but confusion to me]. Such is the image that the religious who loves perseverance in his vocation should form of himself” (C. SERRAT, Ib., p. 234).

271    Because “he should not pay attention only to what is great and sublime in the religious state, in order to be cautious against the blurring effect of pride, cruel destroyer of the grace of vocation; he should also ponder what is painful and difficult in that state, and the humiliations that may appear where he least expects, in order to arm himself against discouragement or indignation, which is another no less disastrous pitfall” (C. SERRAT, ColCC., p. 234).

272    “He should therefore bear in mind the continuous sacrifice imposed by religious life, the self-denial and privations implied by obedience and the other vows, the presence of mind to deal with naturally unpleasant individuals, etc., etc. He should also consider that in these critical moments of humiliation and of trial, the world will magnify the difficulties. The world will seduce him with the false glamour of honours, comforts and freedom, with the allurement of family or friends, who portend a bright future in the Babylon he has left behind (…). But well equipped with them (humility and meekness), he will face all the sacrifices and humiliations that may come his way in the religious life, and he will abhor the incentives and pleasures of the world, (…)” (C. SERRAT, ColCC, p. 235).

273    “When we see a brother who is spiritually afflicted, victim of a distressing sickness or other trials, we should not further exacerbate the situation with charges or recriminations, as Job’s heedless friends did, quis innocens periit? [when did an innocent person perish?], nor should we show ourselves indifferent to his pain, passing by like the Levite and the priest. Rather, like good Samaritans, we should approach him with kindness and compassion, curing the wounds of his spirit with the wine and oil of consolation. God forbid that in any of our Communities there may be even a single person who, in his afflictions, could say with any basis, consolantem me quaesivi et non inveni [I looked for someone who would console me and I found none]” (C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 237).

274    “We beg you, beloved Brothers, for the sake of Jesus Christ, to reflect thoroughly on this matter. Because harshness of heart toward those who suffer, or impatience and severity with the faults of the brothers, if it should be habitual, could make them waver in their vocation. And the mere reasonable suspicion of having somehow contributed to such grievous harm would by no means be a small source of sorrow” (C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC, p. 237).

275    “Yes, dearest Brothers, we should place all our care, all our solicitude and effort in keeping the unity of spirits, the conformity of minds, the affective intimacy of hearts, in such a way that all may be one in thinking and feeling, willing and acting, one in heart and mind, as was the case with the primitive Christians, model and exemplar of all good religious” (C. SERRAT, Ib., ColCC., p. 238).

276    M. ALSINA, circular letter on Los Remedios del descontento en la Religión, Anales, 10 (1906), pp. 529-538; ColCC., pp. 241-245.

277    M. ALSINA, Remedios…, ColCC., p. 242.

278    “Many are the needs of the Congregation, both common and particular, of the material as well as of the spiritual order. Now then, my personal trust in these moments emanates from the fact that prayer continues being always the universal remedy to obtain any help we may desire. However, although I hope to find the remedy of all the needs, I am most interested in those that affect the spiritual welfare of each and every one of the members of the Congregation. Do not be surprised that I refer particularly to this need, because it is presently the main one and because, albeit painful, it is actually a frequent occurrence that not a few live dissatisfied in the Congregation. One is dissatisfied because of the place where he has to live; another one, because of the work he is to accomplish; this one, because of the company of an unpleasant person; that one because of another demanding companion. One suffers on account of the Superior; another one, of the Minister; the other, for this or that one Person-in-charge, etc…” (M. ALSINA, Remedios…, ColCC., pp. 241-242).

279    “The remedy to this malaise afflicting so many should not be sought for on earth, not in a change of place, not in new relationships, not in a change of occupation, of Superiors, of Ministers, of Prefects, no. These changes may, in a given case, produce a momentary relief, like a cold wet cloth on a high fever. But they do not attack the root of the evil, and so soon enough the old malaise reappears and, not infrequently, with greater strength and more danger, because of the experienced disappointment” (M. ALSINA, Remedios…, ColCC., p. 242).

280    It consists “(…) in changing our will, in making it kin on observance, in efficaciously feeling the divine pious motion” M. ALSINA, Ib., ColCC., p. 242.

281    “Yes, the remedy must be applied to the will, and this remedy is no other than the divine pious motion to observance. Because if this pious motion is lacking, the will does not feel sufficiently attracted to this observance; from there comes indecision, from indecision emerges division, from division annoyance, from annoyance inner disorder, and from there uneasiness, ill-being and pain” (M. ALSINA, Ib., ColCC., p. 243).

282    Cf. M. ALSINA, Ib., ColCC., p. 244.

           Once we attain this “divine pious motion,” “(…) we will all be contented with our lot, however humble or laborious. We will enjoy great peace in the Congregation and we will accumulate a large amount of merits for eternity” (Ib., ColCC., p. 245).

283    M. ALSINA, circular letter on the topic Una nueva Provincia [A New Province], Anales, 10 (1906), pp. 577-580: note on p. 578.

284    “And this work should consist in developing, perfecting and strengthening more and more our faculties with a view to the aim of the Congregation” (Ib., p. 579).

285    “Work in accordance with the riches received; if it is five talents, cultivate and put all five to work; if it is two, all two; and if it is only one, cultivate the one talent and put to work. No work will be left without its due reward, unusquisque recipiet mercedem juxta suum laborem (Ib., p. 579).

286    M. ALSINA, circular letter on La formación de los nuestros, Anales, 13 (1911-1912), pp. 333-336; ColCC., pp. 501-504.

287    M. ALSINA, La formación de los…, ColCC., p. 502.

288    “In omnibus, the Rule says: in everything and by everyone. Thus should the postulants be formed, thus the Novices, thus the Professed: Brothers, as well as Students and Priests” (Ib., p. 502).

289    Ib., p. 502.

290    “Formation, therefore, should be directed to obtain the best possible aptness for the accomplishment of such varied means” (Ib., p. 503).

291    Cf. Ib., pp. 503-504.

292    Ib., p. 502.

293    Cf. Ib., p. 502. Then someone might ask:

           “In what should a good formation consist? In this: That all members come out as good Missionaries, to wit, Missionaries of the Congregation and Missionaries of their own time” (Ib., p. 502).

           To attain this good formation, “the Directors should pray, study and reflect on the best methods of good formation and the subjects docilely co-operate with the action and direction of their elders” (Ib., p. 504). Fr. Alsina addressed a circular letter exclusively to the persons-in-charge of formation, on the theme of chastity (M. ALSINA, circular on La educación y formación de nuestros jóvenes misioneros [Education and formation of our young missionaries], 15 August 1919; AG CMF: BC, 1, 6, 6).

294    M. ALSINA, circular on La formación sólida de los nuestros en la virtud [Solid formation of our members in virtue], Anales, 17 (1919-1920), pp. 65-68); ColCC., pp. 504-507.

295    “The second note was that (Pope Benedict XV) in a fatherly manner exhorted us to secure a solid formation in virtue for all those who enter into our beloved Congregation (…). Let us then receive this exhortation, Fathers and Brothers, with gratitude and docility. Directors and directed, let us listen to the loving voice of our common Father, and let us strive for that solid formation recommended to us” (M. ALSINA, Formación sólida…, ColCC., pp. 504-505).

296    “Yes, dear Fathers and Brothers, we need to be formed in solid virtue as our Holy Father urges us, and always to remain in it. Otherwise, we will not be able to fulfil our vocation, which is sanctifying ourselves first, and helping others attain their salvation and sanctification” (M. ALSINA, Formación sólida…, ColCC., p. 505).

297    “Would, dear Fathers and Brothers, that all of us in the Congregation had placed the solid foundation marked out by our holy Constitutions and had remained ever faithful to the vocation we have received! The deficiencies we have to lament are obvious to all. We have seen many who started well but were incapable of remaining faithful to their vocation (…). While they stayed in the Noviciates and the Seminary, they were good, fervent and edifying. But they did not possess a solid virtue, did not have their mind and their heart fixed on the love and imitation of Jesus. Thus, when they got in touch with the world, they allowed worldly affections enter their hearts. They accepted the principles of pride and independence, of pleasure of the senses, having a good time, having and owning vain, superfluous and precious things, and (…) finally they apostatised, first in their hearts and then from the Congregation!” (M. ALSINA, Formación sólida…, ColCC., p. 506).

298    “How can we obtain this solid formation? By placing the imitation of Jesus as its foundation. Whoever builds in himself the house of perfection in this way, as Jesus Christ himself teaches, will be like one building his house on firm rock, (…). On the contrary, if anyone upon entering the Congregation is not determined to imitate and be conformed with Jesus, will be building his perfection on sand (…)” (M. ALSINA, Formación sólida…, ColCC., p. 505).

299    “The Holy Constitutions clearly point out the virtues that are the basis of the life that is lived in the Congregation. As such, all those who enter into it should implant these virtues in their souls: above all, a living faith, as it is the basis of supernatural life; trust, humility, obedience, upright intention, prayer and fidelity to vocation. In other words, we should not turn back from the path we have taken; we should persevere in the practice of those virtues with which we started religious life. In this way, when we present ourselves to the world, people will see in us models to imitate in order to save their souls” (M. ALSINA, Formación sólida…, ColCC., p. 506).

300    Cf. M. ALSINA, circular on La formación del carácter, Anales, 17 (1919-1920) pp. 161-166; ColCC., pp. 507-513.

301    “The Holy constitutions give us a clear idea of the relation and dependence that the character of the Missionaries has on the aims of the Congregation, when they instruct the Provincial to ascertain the character of those who desire to enter the Congregation; and even more, if possible, when they state that it would be dangerous and detrimental to the Congregation to admit persons with bad character among its members” (M. ALSINA., Formación del…, ColCC., p. 509).

           “Let us all work at it, my dear Fathers and Brothers; however, we should work in a special way to attain what has been said in the Noviciates and Seminaries. That is the suitable ground for the seed or religious life to take root, develop and reach its perfection, and for the good character to be formed” (Ib. p. 512).

302    M. ALSINA, Formación del…, ColCC., p. 509.

303    “But, dearest Brothers, without detriment to what has been said, rather leaving it firmly established, we consider it most important to give you some instruction on the character of a Missionary and on his formation. Because it is true that a Missionary, to be truly worthy of the name, should be like another Christ, should preach virtue and point out to everyone the way to heaven, both by word and by example. But in the same way, there is not the slightest doubt that the attainment of this divine enterprise is intimately related to the character of each one” (M. ALSINA, Formación del…, ColCC., p. 508).

304    M. ALSINA, Formación del…, ColCC., pp. 509-510.

           “(…) a person is deemed to have a bad character if he is: selfish, arrogant, vindictive, irascible, distrustful, voluble, scatterbrain, unsociable, apprehensive, disdainful, mocking, false, (…). All these qualities will be more or less prejudicial, to the extent that they have a greater or smaller influence in the day-to-day life of the Missionary (…). In order to be useful to himself, to those who live with him and to those to whom he is sent to exercise the sacred ministry, a Missionary should have a generous, affable, patient, sincere, thoughtful, formal, kind, constant, level-headed, compassionate, indulgent, sociable character (…)” (Ib.).

305    “In the second place, we have to attain strength of character; this can be achieved by means of a continuous and voluntary subjection to the law, order and discipline. What forms a person of character is the fidelity to each one’s daily duties, according to their respective social position” (M. ALSINA, Ib., ColCC., p. 511).

           “A regularly obeyed set of domestic regulations, an exactly observed day and night timetable, is an insuperable school to acquire a firm character, it is a quarry from which it may be possible to extract in time a firm, solid character. In this apparently insignificant exercise, the statement of our Lord is admirably fulfilled: whoever is faithful in small things will also be faithful in the big ones. For this reason, a Missionary who wishes (and all of us should do) to be formed with a firm and noble character, worthy of his lofty vocation, finds here the path to follow” (Ib., pp. 511-512).

306    “And if we want a formula taken from the Constitutions themselves, it is Propter Jesum Christum [for the love of Jesus Christ]. This is the thought, this is the motive needed for a formation of a noble and lofty character (all should obey in everything), this is the absolutely necessary action to form one’s character. The motto, then, the formula should be this: Nothing against obedience; everything according to it; from eating and resting to working and praying; the studies as well as the ministries, everything should be regulated by obedience, everything done in its proper place, time and manner and for the love of Jesus Christ” (Ib., ColCC., p. 512).

307    “Would that the said formula be practised from the Noviciate! Would that this practice be not diminished in the years following the Profession! (…) Let us all work at that, beloved Fathers and Brothers; however, we must exert special efforts to attain this in the Noviciates and Seminaries.” (M. ALSINA, Formación del…, ColCC., p. 512).

308    “And it would be advisable for the Missionary to take Mary, our sweet Mother, as the basis and exemplar of his spiritual formation. In this way, he will more easily and efficaciously copy in himself the image and live the life of Jesus, until he may be able to say with the Apostle: It is is not I who live, but Christ lives in me” (M. ALSINA, La formación del…, ColCC., p. 508).

309    CMF, Reglamento para los Colegios de Postulantes del Instituto de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, [Regulations for the Schools for Postulants of the Institute of Missionaries, Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Santo Domingo 1900, pp. 60. Appendix, pp. 47-58. It continued being published as vocational propaganda to make the Congregation known: M. ALSINA, Relación sumaria del Instituto Religioso de los Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María [Summary account of the Religious Institute of the Missionaries, Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Aranda de Duero 1908; AG CMF, BE, 13, 1. 5; Madrid 1920; AG CMF, BE, 13, 1, 4.

310    Cf. below regarding the VIII General Chapter, n. 1.2.

311    CMF, Reglamento para los Colegios de Postulantes del Instituto de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, Santo Domingo 1900, pp. 60.

312    CMF, Reglamento…, 1900, p. 4.

313    The last book of regulations of Fr. Xifré served as basis for the subsequent regulations.

314    The appendices are formularies that deal with the bases for admission, with the questionnaire prescribed for the candidates and with certain letters prescribed in the process of admission (Cf. CMF, Reglamento…, 1900, pp. 47-60).

315    Among other things, two very important functions are ascribed to superiors: “They should see to it (…) that the Prefects and Professors have the books that are necessary for the good performance of their duties. Finally, they are reminded (…) about the absolute prohibition of assigning the Prefects any preaching outside the house, even in their own church, if this would distract them from their main task, which is the care of the postulants. The same should be said, relatively, about Professors; no preaching should be assigned to them inside or outside the house, if this would be an obstacle to the teaching of their respective subjects, which is their main task” (CMF, Reglamento…, 1900, ch. 3, art. 2, III, pp. 25-26).

316    CMF, Ib., 1900, ch. 3, art 3, III, p. 33.

317    Cf. CMF, Ib., 1900, ch. 3, art. 3,V, pp. 36-37.

318    “(put on) feelings of love towards his beloved Postulants; that type of love that hates sin but loves the sinner (…)” (CMF, Reglamento…, 1900, ch. 3, art 3, V, pp. 37-38).

319    CMF, Reglamento para los Colegios de Postulantes del Instituto de Misioneros Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, Aranda de Duero 1907, 48 pp.

320    Cf. CMF, Ib., 1907, p. 12.

321    Professors should be convinced that “they will obtain better results with persuasion and mildness, than with rigid measures. They should consider the child’s weakness and attribute most of his defects to this weakness, rather than to malice. With a great stock of patience and meekness (…) all evils will be more effectively remedied” (CMF, Reglamento…, 1907, p. 19).

322    Cf. CMF, Ib., 1907, p. 32.

323    CMF, Espejo del Postulante o sea Directorio para los Postulantes del Colegio de Vich [Mirror of the Postulant or Directory for the Postulants of the Seminary of Vich], 32 pp. It has neither author’s name nor place or date of publication. From other sources we know that it was written for the postulants of that centre by Fr. Ribera when he was in Vich (Cf. J. Mª BERENGUERAS, Vida del P. Ribera, Barcelona 1950, p. 109). From the correspondence of Fr. Ribera it can be assumed that he wrote it in the first months of 1907 (AG CMF: GR, 3, 2, 40; GR, 3, 2, 31). Several editions (1917, 1937) and translations into different languages were made. As we shall see later, in 1962 an updated adaptation was published under the name Manual del Seminarista Claretiano [Manual of the Claretian Seminarian] (CMF, General Prefecture of Formation, Rome 1962, 183 pp.).

324    “During the years of Postulancy, they should strive with great determination to initiate themselves in the religious life, in conformity with the spirit and practices of the Congregation” (CMF, Espejo del Postulante..., p.1).

325    Cf. CMF, Ib., ch. 1, nn. 2,7, p. 2-3.

326    “Since the love for the Congregation is one of the most unmistakable signs of vocation to it, they (the missionaries) should love it with true filial love, highly appreciate its things, rejoice in its triumphs, constantly pray for it and for its Superiors. By means of an irreproachable behaviour, they should strive to be a source of delight and hope for it now, in order to become its glory and crown in the future” (Cf. CMF, Ib, ch. 1. n. 8, pp. 3-4).

327    Cf. CMF, Ib. ch. 2, and 4, pp. 6-16.

328    “They should frequently visit him in his room, informing him about their state of health and what they need to preserve it, about their progress in studies and about the difficulties they encounter. Above all, they will open their heart to him, sincerely manifesting to him whatever good or bad there is in their soul and receiving with docility his advices, warnings and corrections. This transparency of conscience will be for the postulants one of the best guarantees of their perseverance in the Congregation” (CMF, Ib., ch. 2, n. 6, pp 7-8).

329    Cf. ch 2, II, 5, 1.

330    Cf. note 194.

331    Aranda de Duero, 1912, AG CMF: 12, 2, 1.

332    Cf. Introduction.

333    Cf. Anales, 7 (1899-1900), p. 515.

334    Cf. Anales, 7 (1899-1900), p. 577.

335    Cf. Anales, 9 (1903-1904), p. 253.

336    Cf. Minutes of the Chapter, sessions 23 and 24.

337    Cf. Anales, 9 (1903-1904), p. 553.

338    Cf. Anales, 14 (1913-1914), p. 239, and 15 (1915-1916), p. 621.

339    The X General Chapter of Aranda de Duero (1906) has nothing special on the themes we are dealing with (Cf. Anales, 10 (1905-1906), pp. 184-196).

340    VIII GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 7 (1899-1900), Appendix.

341    Cf. Rescript of 28 October 1895.

342    Cf. Appendix, p. 12-13.

343    Cf. Appendix, p. 16.

344    Cf. Appendix, p. 17.

345    Cf. Appendix, p. 15-16.

346    Cf. CC., 1870, Part 2, n. 41.

347    Cf. Appendix, p. 9.

348    IX GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 9 (1903-1904), Appendix.

349    Cf. Appendix, pp. 7-8.

350    Cf. Appendix, pp. 28-30.

351    Cf. Appendix, pp. 30-31.

352    Appendix, pp. 34ff.

353    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, n. 29.

354    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, n. 76.

355    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, n. 63.

356    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, n. 103.

357    Cf. CC., 1870, part I, n. 94.

358    Cf. Appendix, p. 37.

359    XI GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 13 (1911-1912), pp. 515-521, 545-560, 641-644.

360    Cf. Rescript of 20 June 1912, Anales, 13 (1911-1912), pp. 551-552.

361    The following is proposed as motivation for the proposal: “Superior Generalis (…) voto obsequens Capituli Generalis (…) exponit: (…) Sed talis probatio experimento (quindecim dies) inventa est non satis sufficiens, maxime pro fratribus coadjutoribus seu laicis: unde Capitulum Generale, re mature deliberata, in decisionem venit petendi a S.V. decretum quo (…) inducatur longius tempus aspiratus seu Postulatus pro Fratribus Coadjutoribus, etenim pro Clericis necessarium non apparet extendere tempus aspiratus, quia generatim iuvenes, antequam ad aspiratum et Novitiatum pergant, manent sub nomine Postulantium aliquot annons, ordinarie quatuor, in nostris Collegiis ad modum Scholarum Apostolicarum constitutis (…)” [The Superior General (…) following the desire of the General Chapter (…) exposes: (…). But such probation for a period of 15 days is deemed insufficient, especially for coadjutor or lay brothers. Hence, the General Chapter, after mature deliberation, has decided to ask from you a decree by which (…) a longer period of Aspirancy or Postulancy be prescribed for Coadjutor Brothers. Indeed, it does not seem necessary to extend the period of Aspirancy for clerics, because, as a rule, before going to Aspirancy and Noviciate, the young men spend several years (usually four) under the name of Postulants in our formation centres, established in the style of Apostolic Schools] (Ib., pp. 551-553). This longer period of Aspirancy begins to be called Postulancy.

362    These are the concrete reasons that appear in the minutes of the General Chapter of 1912: The will of the Holy See manifested in various pontifical documents; the practice of almost all religious Institutes; the need to give our Missionaries a good foundation in the religious spirit and, in the case of Spain, the demands of the new compulsory military service law, which could probably affect the Congregation. One capitular priest declared himself in favour of temporal vows, because the perpetual profession should be made after Philosophy, since in this formative stage (16-20 years) the individual is still affectively immature (this is “the stage of passions,” he said). On the contrary, on entering into the Theology years, the students “are in better position to decide with greater conviction and will power on the profession of perpetual vows.” However, in others’ opinion, the introduction of temporal vows would bring many vocational defections during this period (Cf. Minutes, ses. 19-20, AG CMF: AD, 2, 4).

363    Cf. Ib., pp. 551-552.

364    Cf. Ib., p. 552.

365    Cf. Ib., p. 553.

366    Cf. Ib., p. 556.

367    Cf. Ib., p. 557.

368    CMF, Disposiciones Generales para los Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María, Santo Domingo 1900, pp. 112.

369    Cf. Prologue, p. 6.

370    CMF, Disposiciones Generales Vigentes para los Hijos del Inmaculado Corazón de María [Prevailing General Dispositions for the Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary], Santo Domingo 1905, pp. 118. It includes an Appendix with some modifications originated in the General Chapter of Aranda de Duero (1906), pp. 6.

371    As we have just indicated, the modifications are included in an Appendix in the foregoing publication.

372    CMF, Disposiciones basadas en el Capítulo General de Vich del año 1912 [Dispositions based on the 1912 General Chapter of Vic], Aranda de Duero, 1912, pp. 131.

373    Besides the circulars we will be quoting, it’s worth recalling the following:

           • El espíritu corporativo [The Corporate Spirit], March 10, 24: Anales, 20 (1924), pp. 193-205; ColCC., pp. 250-263.

           • Observancia de las Santas Constituciones [Keeping of the Holy Constitutions], Anales, 20 (1924), pp. 513-539; ColCC., pp. 67-85.

           • El cumplimiento del deber [Fulfilment of one’s duty], Anales, 27 (1931), pp. 17-22; ColCC., pp. 662-667.

           • El año de perfección religiosa y misionera, [The year of religious and missionary perfection], Annales, 36 (1940-1941), pp. 97-116 with the Book of Regulations.

           • Sacerdote Misionero [Missionary Priest], Annales, 37 (1942-1944), pp. 209-251.

           • Dirección espiritual, [Spiritual Direction], Annales, 37 (1942-1944), pp. 437-459.

           • A los Padres Prefectos de Postulantes, [To the Prefects of Postulants], Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 105-106.

           • A los Padres Prefectos de Estudiantes Profesos, [To the Prefects of Professed Students], Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 106-107

           • La nota más característica del Hijo del Corazón de María, [The most Characteristic Mark of a Son of the Heart of Mary], Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 241-255.

           • El Deber Religioso [The Religious Duty], Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 493-510.

           Fr. JOSÉ Mª MESA, CMF published a selection of circulars by Fr. García in his book Para formar Apóstoles [Towards Forming Apostles], coll. of Vida Religiosa 24, Madrid 1964, pp. 327. It contains a profile of Fr. General written by Fr. Augustus Andrew Ortega, cmf.

374    N. GARCÍA, circular letter Sobre algunos acuerdos capitulares [On some Chapter Decisions], Annales, 34 (1938), pp. 3-9; ColCC., pp. 858-866.

375    N. GARCÍA, Acuerdos…, ColCC., p. 862. As early as 1926 Fr. N. García urged the Missionaries to work for vocations in order to be able to help the missions (cf. circular letter on La Pía Unión Misionera del Corazón de María [Pious Missionary Union of the Heart of Mary], Anales, 22 (1926), pp. 769-776; ColCC, pp. 263-270; reference in p. 267).

376    N. GARCÍA, circular letter on La Vocación Misionera, Anales, 34 (1938), pp. 289-323; ColCC., pp. 324-365.

377    “One of the objectives the latest General Chapter entrusted to the care of the General Government was the necessity of the Congregation’s increase and development (…). The General Government, in keeping with the Chapter orientation and thus imitating the Fr. Founder (…) and Fr. Xifré (…), has painstakingly studied this most serious matter” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 324). He refers to the XIV General Chapter held in Albano from 20 November to 7 December of 1937.

378    “It is one of the Congregation’s concerns because it sees, and experience confirms it, that on it depend the welfare of the Congregation and its children, the continuation and expansion of its apostolate with its great enterprises, the orderly and efficacious realisation of its aim as indicated in the first chapter of the holy Constitutions, namely the salvation of all people in the world: totius mundi animarum salutem quaerere” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 324).

379    “With the Spanish revolution, the Congregation has suffered a hard blow in its personnel. A very large number of worthy Priests, well advanced Students who constituted a beautiful hope, and well formed Brothers have been immolated (…). For all these reasons, the Congregation absolutely needs an increase of members, but choice members; since what makes religious Institutes progress is not precisely the number, but the quality of their members” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 327. Cf. also, Acuerdos…, ColCC., p. 862).

           In another circular, about which we will speak later, Fr. General will again say that the Congregation:

           “urgently, without delay, needs many and excellent vocations. The field of action is very wide in space: totius mundi; in its ministries: Missions, Exercises, pious action, Catholic Action, Dioceses, Vicariates, Prefectures, Parishes, Seminaries, teaching, publications, schools, propaganda. All of these things demand much personnel, select personnel” (N. GARCÍA, circular on Formación Religiosa, Misionera y Claretiana [Religious, Missionary and Claretian Formation] FRMC., Annales, 39 (1947), pp. 65-119; quotation on pp. 86-87).

380    “Each Province, Vice-province and even Visitorship, if circumstances so demand, should have:

           a) At least a Postulancy School; but they should not be contented with one, rather they should open more, if there are hopes of new vocations and viability for their maintenance.

           b)  Prepostulancy or lower Postulancy Schools, if they are deemed suitable as vocation gathering centres. If circumstances warrant it, these Prepostulancy Schools may be multiplied, even at the cost of reducing the Higher Postulancy Schools.

           c) With the appropriate permissions, small youth centres may be established even in special houses, where the youth may be trained for Postulancy, as our Fr. Founder indicated as early as 1870, and the General Government established in 1876.

           It would be a praiseworthy idea to have in each of the aforementioned major organisms a prudent and zealous priest, appointed by the Major Superior to promote, guide, foster and stimulate the work of vocations, always under the supervision of the same Major Superior” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 356-357).

381    “From all the foregoing we can infer, Brothers, that our love for the Congregation, our love for the Church, our love for souls and our love of God impose upon us the necessity of:

           1st. Ceaselessly praying God to send many and good labourers to the vineyard of the Congregation.

           2nd. Seeking many and good vocations by all possible means.

           3rd. Cherishing, loving and defending our vocation.

           4th. Living in conformity with it.

           The Holy Constitutions offer us a very broad evangelisation plan: first, they present the brilliant idea of our Father: the salvation of people throughout the world. Then they point out very diverse and very efficacious means: catechisms, exercises, missions, teaching; all possible means and throughout the entire world. That implies many labourers and, therefore, many vocations. Without numerous labourers, the Congregation will not be able to carry out the very broad plan laid out in the Constitutions.

           Let us not be the cause for the Congregation’s failure to carry out its aim; that would be its death. Let us ceaselessly ask the Lord of the harvest to send labourers. We must put our trust in the Lord and in our Mother; work as good soldiers of Christ and not doubt that the Congregation will grow. Thus we shall be able to say, “Rise up and see how many are the children who greet you and surround you.” Let us all work under the maternal mantle of Mary’s Heart, filling with light people of the entire world, ascending the ladder of sanctity to its very top. Thus we will deserve that the divine glory that the Congregation is spreading here on earth may envelop us in heaven with a mantle of eternal bliss” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 364-365).

382    “It is a fatal mistake to believe that once this grace has been received, once we have been incorporated in the body of the Congregation, transplanted or grafted into this vineyard of the Lord, we need not worry about it any longer. This is what causes many, after the Noviciate, or studies, or the first years of public life, to fall into lukewarmness, laziness of spirit, laxity in the ways of perfection. As a consequence, bad inclinations revive, in the same way as thorns and thistles grow in a neglected field” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 346).

383    “One begins to dream about the apparent advantages of secular life; the love of recollection is lost; one does not find pleasure in prayer; mortification becomes difficult; life of submission, unbearable; one does not any more see in one’s vocation those sublime ideals that used to be so inspiring. Very easily one begins to think that there are situations even more conducive to virtue, a theory that does not fit in with the teachings of the Church; that perhaps they could work better in other situations; that religious life is a burden rather superior to the human strength” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 346-347).

384    “All this means that it is necessary to cultivate one’s vocation as one cultivates a fragile and delicate plant that one wishes to see grown and developed. This plant, left to itself, exposed to the weather, to the heat of the sun, to the bite on the insects, will unfailingly die. In the same way a vocation that is not nourished, protected and defended will die and be lost” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 347).

           “The reason of all this is that vocation is a grace, a very special grace; and it is well known that grace, if not responded to, is lost. Therefore, it is the task of all to cultivate it always” (Ib., p. 349).

385    N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 346.

386    N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 349.

387    “That plant can only take root, grow, develop and bear fruit in a supernatural atmosphere; it requires delicate care” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., p. 346).

388         1st. Estimating one’s vocation, having a very high idea of it; appreciating it as God’s very special gift, as our Rules tell us (…)”

           2nd. Loving our vocation with great affection, as the greatest good after baptism (…). Therefore we should be happy with our vocation, continuously thanking God for it, asking for holy perseverance, which is a sure guarantee of eternal salvation.”

           3rd. Vocation is a seed, as we have said and the Church teaches (…). Work and care is needed to develop this seed. Whoever does not develop it, whoever does not advance goes backward, according to our holy Constitutions (…).”

           4th. (…) We must fight against these enemies of our vocation with the weapon of faith, as our Father tells the Novices (C. XXIV, n. 105), with the weapon of mortification, with the weapon of prayer. Only God can grant perseverance, but God does not deny it to those who ask for it. For this reason, we should unceasingly ask for this precious gift every day, but above all in moments of temptation or danger.”

           5th. (…) That treasure is better kept by means of seclusion, of recollection, because religious life is separation from the world, or with proper cautions, when the duties of our ministry call us to deal with people in the world, in order to bring them to God.”

           6th. Placing vocation in its proper atmosphere (…). Self-sacrifice is the adequate atmosphere for vocation (…). This is the atmosphere where it takes root, grows and reaches maturity (…).”

           7th. “That spirit (of religion) gives life, makes work easy, urges on to works proper of Religion. Externally, living out the spirit of Religion comes down to the generosity towards offices, assignments, ministries, (…). Our Founder demands this from those who enter. The lack of this generosity is the origin of worries, discomfort, discussions, even the loss of vocation” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 349-351).

389    Cf. N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 351-355.

390    “We believe that a missionary should think and feel that his state is indeed divine and the best for him; that, within the Congregation, he can develop his spirit, his piety, his holiness and his apostolic zeal; that in the Congregation, if he lives in conformity with it, he will have peace of soul; that the Congregation will be the guide that will lead him in the ways of holiness to the heights of eternal glory” (N. GARCÍA., circular on the Estima, amor e interés por la Congregación [Esteem, Love and Concern for the Congregation], Anales, 26 (1930), pp. 33-43; ColCC., pp. 271-280; quotation on p. 277).

391    “This idea should take root in all the sons of the Congregation as early as the noviciate; furthermore, these ideas should be expressed in order to encourage oneself and to stimulate others. In this way we create an optimistic climate. The shadows of certain religious, that will always be there, either by temperament or out of spite, or due to mistaken ideas of false spirituality, will drown in this climate of light and reassuring enthusiasm” (N. GARCÍA, Ib., ColCC., p. 277).

392    “There are those who see nothing but perfection in other Institutes and defects in their own. This defeatist spirit, contrary to all enthusiasm, can only lead to pessimism” (Ib., ColCC., p 277).

393    “(…) above all, let us offer the Congregation the great good of religious observance: this will be its life, its peace, its happiness, its prosperity and its glory. In this way, far from being ashamed of any of its sons, the Congregation will be able to boast of their holy life: Vos corona mea et gaudium meum [You are my crown and my joy]” (Ib., ColCC., p. 279).

394    “Its spreading throughout the world demands that all strive to procure vocations, by fostering its schools” (Ib., ColCC., p. 276).

           “The missionaries who truly love the Congregation procure her all the good they can, the good of vocations, making use of all possible means to foster them. Above all, we would like them to fix their attention on the need of mature vocations, namely, priests and advanced students and Brothers with some profession. Nothing that is done in this matter will be too much, and they should not forget that God uses human means to select his chosen ones (…). We also vehemently urge you to promote the Pious Union of Suffrages which, besides fostering popular devotion and doing good to the souls in purgatory, is also a great help for our Schools, whence will come the new missionaries that we so badly need, as we all acknowledge” (Ib., ColCC., p. 278).

395    N. GARCÍA, circular on Formación de nuestros estudiantes, Anales, 28 (1932), pp. 225-244; ColCC., pp. 513-533.

396    Cf. note 379.

397    In order to be counted among the great missionary figures, such as that of our Fr. Founder, “it is indispensable that the Son of the Heart of Mary, during his formation days, engrave in himself the image of Jesus Christ, Eternal Priest, divine Saviour and Redeemer of people by his doctrine and by his precious blood, in such a way that, at the end of his formation or career it may be said of him: this Missionary is alter Christus, another Christ” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 75).

398    “The lack of that clear idea in the mind, made blood and life in the heart, causes many not to enter with total resolution into real life, into the great road of the holy, perfect, most efficacious life of a Missionary Son of the Immaculate heart of Mary” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 75).

399    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 76.

400    “All the young missionaries should engrave in their heart this idea: Vae mihi si non evangelizavero [Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel] (1Cor 9,16)” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 531).

401    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 532-533.

402    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 92-93.

403    Cf. 1Cor, 10,4.

404    “If he is well formed, he establishes a safe, firm and stable foundation, because it is based on the rock that is Christ (1Cor, 10,4) (…). He will be a successful Missionary since effectiveness in ministry is linked to the good formation he has received, not only technically, but especially spiritually” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 98).

           “A missionary must be formed because the fruit of his ministry depends on his spiritual and professional life. The fruit of the ministry is the result of two causes: the virtue itself of the ministry and the preparation of the person who receives the ministry” (Ib., p. 84).

405    N. GARCÍA, Acuerdos…, ColCC., p. 860.

406    “Christ must be formed in the Missionary. That is the task of our formators. The Missionary must bear Christ in his body by the example of all modesty (…) bearing in his body the marks of Christ (Gal 6,17) so that he may be Christ’s fragrance (2Cor 2,15). He should bear Christ in his soul, in his mind, directing his acts, his words, his projects, his works, his studies to the glory of God and the welfare of souls (…). He should bear Christ in his heart, seeking not his own glory and exaltation, but the glory of God, until he can say with Jesus Christ: ego quae placita sunt ei facio semper; ego non quaero gloriam meam [I always do what pleases him; I don’t seek my own glory] (Jn 8, 29, 50)” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 96).

           “Thus formators of missionaries should not abandon his charges but rather assist them always with their example, prayer, word, counsel, correction, so that Christ may be formed in the conscience of all, until they reach the fullness of the age of Christ (Eph 4,13)” (Ib., p. 97).

407    Phil 2, 21; Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 80.

408    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 119.

409    “How shall we achieve such lofty and perfect formation? 1st, with prayer: only God forms the souls He created. Only the Holy Spirit, who physically formed Jesus Christ in the womb of the most Blessed Virgin, only He can form the image of Jesus Christ in people. The priest is the masterpiece of the Holy Spirit. The religious is the result of the great inpouring of the grace of the Holy Spirit in the soul; it is He who, with indelible characters, imprints in the soul of the religious the image of Jesus Christ crucified, the ideal of the religious. Only the Holy Spirit, who inspired our Founder, will engrave the Claretian ideal in the Missionary, Priest, Student or Brother. For this reason, the Congregation should, first of all, pray with unutterable groans to the Holy Spirit, the Spirit of Jesus Christ, to come with the abundance of his gifts, his charisms, his inspirations, his irresistible motions, upon each and everyone of the Sons of the Heart of Mary. Only with prayer, much prayer, insistent prayer on the part of all, but especially of those in charge of formation, shall the Claretian idea of perfection, of holiness, zeal, science, oratory, culture, professional work, be realised and incarnate in the heart and mind and be put into practice” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 107).

410    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 107.

411    “Let us pray, dear Brothers; let us pray much, with humility and perseverance, through the mediation of the Mother of the Priest, of the Religious and of the Missionary. She formed in her womb and nourished her most blessed Son until he became a perfect man. May She also form the Missionary in her bosom, in her Immaculate Heart, and nourish him with the divine graces until he is fully developed, according to the fullness of the maturity of Christ, and keep him under her maternal protection. She who is the Mother of perseverance” (Ib., p. 107).

412    “The Missionary Priest must be by vocation, by profession, a man of God: Tu autem homo Dei (1Tim 6,11). Prayer must take up a great part of his time: Nos vero orationi et ministerio verbi instantes erimus [As for us, we shall give ourselves to prayer and to the ministry of the Word] (Acts 6,4). He must live for God, in God and with God; he must constantly lift up his heart to God” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 93).

           “The Missionary must be, above all, a man imbued with a very great spirit of prayer, which everywhere must accompany the Son of the Congregation” (N. GARCÍA, circular on piety: La piedad, Anales, 21 (1925), pp. 225-240; ColCC., pp. 646-662, quotation on p. 656).

413    “A Missionary who is full of God changes the world. History teaches this” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 84).

414    “All this professionalism demands virtue, a docile spirit, constant study, a life of seclusion, an unselfish life, intimate union with God, constant recourse to prayer; in one word, a holy life” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 94).

415    “All the organisms of the Congregation, all the functions, all the means of formation must be directed to producing Missionaries animated by that spirit. Postulancy, Noviciate, Scholasticate, Year of Perfection, Second Noviciate, first years of Ministry, everything should be directed to this formation. Superiors, Novicemasters, Prefects, Professors, Confessors, Ministers, Preachers, should cooperate to this end” (FMRC., p. 94).

416    “because the human person, in order to be complete, must develop and perfect all the elements that integrate its being, and the human person is not only body or only soul, but is composed of body and soul, with their respective faculties”

417    Cf. Eph, 4,13; N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 66-68.

418    Cf. N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 515.

419    “This formation, in all its broadness, is the direct object of Postulancy, of Noviciate, of Scholasticate, of the Year of Perfection, of the second Noviciate for perpetual profession and the exercise of the ministry (CIA. D.C., 504). That is the grave obligation of Provincial Superiors, Superiors, Novicemasters, Ministers, Prefects of Scholastics and Prefect of the Year of Perfection” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 70).

420    Cf. N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 200, 522-524,528-529.

           “It is fitting that Prefects and Superiors instruct them on the dangers that may be found in the ministries, and present to them the world with its snares, so that they may prepare themselves to fight generously. They should also inform them about the character that their life should have, in order to become serious men, with solid and well-rooted ideas that will direct their life. Ideas are permanent, feelings are temporary and movable” (Ib., p. 529).

421    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 523-524.

           “Is this what we see? How many of those who in the seminaries seemed models of virtue go to the houses and forget everything! Could this be the fault of the Directors? It would be unfair to attribute it to them. People, ut in pluribus deficiunt [how they fail in many things]: but at any rate, it is good to learn the lesson” (Ib., ColCC., p. 524).

422    “They (the Prefects) should raise their eyes and see to it that the students choose, for the sake of God, what is most humble and hardest; even more, that they take glory in the cross, like the Apostle. They should read the definition of a missionary left by our Founder, and study the chapter on interior mortification, and they will see the ideal they should aspire to. They should not be content with setting forth this ideal to them; they should see to it that the students gradually put it into practice. It should be clear that, as the occasions come, they willingly embrace, not only external, but also internal humility, since merely mental virtue lacks practical effectiveness. It is indispensable that the will adapts itself to these ideas and that these ideas act upon the life of the Students of the Heart of Mary. So long as our Directors do not form men who are habituated to these great virtues, we shall not have great Missionaries; they will be mediocre, they will never accomplish great things for God” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 530).

           “Instructions are necessary, but they are not enough; those lessons of spirituality have to be applied, put into practice. Our formation, as we already said, cannot be only passive; it must be active; we too are all free (…). Virtues are acquired by exercise; for this reason, the Student must continuously exercise this supernatural virtue (of humility)” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 113).

423    “What can be expected of persons who are cold, empty, dry, without enthusiasm or great ideals and, above all, without the warmth emanating from the presence of Him who came to bring fire to earth and wants to put it entirely on fire by means of his Ministers?” (N. GARCÍA, circular on La espiritualidad Misionera o Claretiana [Missionary or Claretian spirituality], Anales, 35 (1939), pp. 49-108; ColCC., pp. 85-155, quotation on p. 141).

424    “These people are spiritually retarded; they are children who do not leave their childhood. They are not ready for the struggles of the spiritual man. Therefore, they frequently fall under the weight of spiritual life; they fall into lukewarmness, which is contrary to the law of love that says “you shall love God with all your heart, with all your strength, with all your mind.” These people love only with a part of their heart, of their mind, of their strength. They go against the law of progress (…). The law of progress enjoins ascende superius [go higher], aemulamini carismata meliora [set your hearts on the more precious gifts] (…)” (N. GARCÍA, La espiritualidad…, ColCC., pp. 125-126). 

425    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 106.

           “The Missionary, his heart set on Jesus, his divine Master, and on Mary, his Mother, supported by faith, strengthened by prayer, can say with the Apostle: neither thirst nor hunger, neither life nor death, neither heaven nor hell, will separate me from my Divine Jesus. Thus speaks the fervent missionary; but when fervour decays and the Missionary turns his eyes away from Jesus (…) then (…) he sinks in the waves of passions” (N. GARCÍA, La piedad, ColCC., p 647).

426    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 532.

427    Regarding the necessity for the brothers to improve in their offices and tasks, cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 91-93. Cf. also the circular on Nuestros Hermanos Coadjutores [Our Coadjutor Brothers], Anales, 23 (1927), pp. 689-717; ColCC., pp. 554-583, reference on pp. 564-565; circular on Nuestros Hermanos Coadjutores, Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 3-15, reference on pp. 8-9).

428    “A missionary must be fluent in speaking and writing; but fluency in language is an art, and art is a habit, and a habit is only established by continuous use and practice. For this reason, the Missionaries should not leave the acquisition of language fluency for the time when they must exercise their ministries. By then they will encounter serious difficulties; while having a storehouse of knowledge, they will be unable to profit from it for lack of language fluency” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 519).

429    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 110-111.

430    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 110.

431    “In the Postulancy the general bases or foundations should be laid, to wit, fear of God, piety, above all toward the Virgin Mary, discipline or respect, and industriousness” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 552).

432    “Prefects should persistently strive to foster the holy fear of God in the Postulants, not only in conferences or in private conversations, instilling in them a holy fear of all sin, making them practice acts of God’s presence. This fear should be filial, not servile, looking more at the love for God than at punishment; therefore, they should foster piety in these young men, more particularly the devotion to Mary, which will keep them away from sin and united to God” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 525; cf. also FRMC., p. 111).

433    As early as the Postulancy, the seminarians should present positive indications towards their future life of obedience.

           “Discipline. In order to be a Missionary, a very profound self-denial is needed. Therefore, it is imperative to continuously inure the young Postulants to discipline; transgressions against the Regulations of the Seminary should not be tolerated, much less, lack of respect to Superiors and Professors. In this regard, we call the attention of all those concerned with the formation of these young men. There should be unity of action among Superiors, Prefects, Professors and Confessors. If they do not unanimously strive to instil that spirit of docility, it will be very difficult, not to say impossible, that our Communities reach the level of perfection, as regards obedience and charity, that our Fr. Founder demands in our holy Constitutions. Superiors and Prefects should be very vigilant in this regard. Should they observe some unmanageable young men, opposed to any kind of discipline, these persons must be inexorably dismissed. We do not refer to those young men who, being good at heart, like children, inadvertently commit some faults, but are amenable to correction; we refer rather to those others who are opposed to any yoke, who do not yield or admit correction. Pius X said that Seminarians with these characteristics, after a fruitless year, must be dismissed, never to be admitted in any Seminary, for lack of qualities for priesthood” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 526-527).

434    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 111.

           “The young seminarians need a deep piety in order to persevere in virtue, above all to keep the virtue of chastity; more particularly, in the Congregation they need a sincere, enthusiastic and practical devotion to the Heart of Mary. Prefects should train them much in these practices, and see to it that they do frequent offerings to Mary and visit Jesus in the Blessed Sacrament. In this way they will preserve purity and virtue in their Postulancy schools, (…)” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 526).

435    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 111-112.

           “(…) as early as the Postulancy, the children in the preparatory stage should make their essays; but in such a way that they not only translate the thought or essay made by their professor but the Postulant himself, in view of the rules and notions he has received, writes his own exercise and makes short essays” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 519).

436    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 112.

           “Our Missionaries should be extremely polished; they have to deal with all sorts of people: omnibus debitor sum [I am under obligation to all] (Rom, 1,14). Therefore, it is necessary that they be socially educated, so that they can decorously appear before people and, since social education cannot be improvised, it is indispensable that during the formation years they behave with the good manners they will have to practice in public life” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 530).

437    “The most suitable time for formation is the Noviciate” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 112).

438    “The Noviciate is a mould into which the novices must cast themselves… The Founder gives us a well-made mould, that is, the holy Constitutions, where he draws the image of a Missionary. It is necessary that the Novices, under the guidance of the Novicemaster, carve this image in their soul” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 112).

439    N. GARCÍA, La espiritualidad…, ColCC., p. 147.

440    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 527.

441    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 112-113.

442    “It is necessary that the idea that the superior represents God and governs in his name be deeply engraved in all the Sons of the Congregation. However, they should not consider in the Superior his human personality, the perfect or imperfect characteristics that distinguish it, but only his representation (…). We strongly recommend that this matter be frequently discussed and even be presented in talks to the Communities, especially in the Noviciates and Scholasticates” (N. GARCÍA, Obediencia cristiana y religiosa [Christian and religious obedience], Anales, 22 (1926), pp. 5-28; ColCC., pp. 622-646, quotation on p. 644).

443    “Before opening the gates of the Institute, he (our Fr. Founder) admonishes that in it we make profession of perfect obedience. The candidate must have in mind that he should be content in any job or house obedience should place him in. Once the aspirant is admitted, when he is about to lay the foundations of religious life, the Founder tells the Novice that, together with the world, he should leave behind his own will and be perfect in obedience, so necessary to him, and so insistently prescribed by the Constitutions” (N. GARCÍA, Obediencia…, ColCC., p. 628).

444    “2nd, Grounding them (the novices) in self-denial. Not only in the external, but also in the internal discipline of judgement and will; they should train them in the sacrifice of their own judgement and will; should not allow them to live internally according to their own whims, but see to it that they submit to the norms of the Congregation and the directions of the Superiors” (…) (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 527-528).

445    5th. In discipline. That the novices submit to the norms of the Congregation, those that our Founder left us in the holy Constitutions as well as those contained in the ordinations and dispositions of the Superiors. But this discipline must be spontaneous, born of conviction, not out of fear. Therefore, it is necessary that they do not act because of the vigilance of the Superiors. Their conduct should be dictated by their own conscience, and this conscience must be such that they ordinarily do not break the norms of their conduct” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., pp. 528-529).

446    Our Fr. Founder, in the Constitutions, “demands the expulsion of any novice who refuses to obey or does not want to submit his own judgement to the Superior” (N. GARCÍA, Obediencia…, ColCC., p. 628).

447    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 528.

448    N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 530. Even in social education and in their courteous relationship with their Superiors and the rest of the brothers, the Students should be humble and docile (Cf. in., p. 531).

449    N. GARCÍA, circular on El celo [On Zeal], Anales, 27 (1931), pp. 209-221; ColCC., pp. 679-692, quotation on p. 692.

450    The necessity of a higher culture on the part of a Missionary cannot be called into question. That culture must always be up-to-date. A Missionary cannot be out of touch with the general culture of his time. This would be detrimental to the mission” (N. GARCÍA, circular on Las Bibliotecas [On Libraries], Anales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 305-316, quotation on p. 315).

           Human Sciences and Arts themselves can be of service to your mission, that is, to transform the profane temples into temples of the living God” (Ib., p. 316).

           “A Missionary should be able to express the divine truths in various forms, acceptable to the many different audiences to whom he must address his word. The Priest should study the great political, social, philosophical, scientific and moral questions, aspirations of the peoples, all manifestations of life, in order to impregnate them, give them form, penetrate them with the divine. Thus he will be able to avoid error, the deception of the masses, and to direct the great impulses of the peoples, along ways marked out by Revelation, by the Church, towards attaining the final destiny. All this presupposes on-going study” (Ib., p. 315).

451    N. GARCÍA, Acuerdos…, ColCC., p. 861.

452    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., pp. 91-94.

     “Spiritual formation is not sufficient; professional formation is indispensable (…). For this reason the Church and our Congregation, following the Church’s direction, prescribe a career. Study must be intensive and extensive. All sciences have a more or less direct relationship with the Missionary’s professional formation. The Missionary should have a high general culture in addition to his own specific one. He should not only be at the same level with the educated persons of the world, but he should rise above the general level of the Clergy, because of his public mission (…). The Student of the Heart of Mary should be convinced that he needs a great love for study in order to keep on forming himself professionally towards the Ministry” (N. GARCÍA, circular on Ministries, Annales, 38 (1945-1946), pp. 361-386, quotation on p. 370).

453    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 101.

454    Cf. N. GARCÍA, FRMC., P. 108.

455    “Superiors, Prefects, Novicemasters, Professors, Ministers, Confessors, are delegates of the Congregation, which transfers to them its rights, its duties and its responsibility. The weal or woe of the Congregation, then, depend on them” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 101; cf. also p. 107).

456    “One of the most serious obligations of religious Superiors is to ensure a good formation of their subjects, particularly of the young who prepare themselves for the priesthood (…). Formation of the young religious is the first and most serious obligation of all religious Superiors” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 513).

           The specific functions of superiors in the area of formation are described in the Constitutions, in our law and in the study plans. Together with the superiors, the General and Provincial Chapters, as agencies of government, have normally taken care of the formation of our members, guiding and legislating according to the circumstances of the moment. As regards responsibility in the formation of the brothers, cf. N. GARCÍA, Nuestros Hermanos…, Annales, 38 (1945), pp. 8,11.

457    In fact, with some exceptions, they have addressed their circular letters on formation to the entire Congregation, aware that the whole Congregation is responsible for formation and that all its members should be directly or indirectly committed to the formative task.

458    In the formation centres, provincials should place “religious of great virtue who will educate more by the example of all religious and priestly virtues (…) than by their word” (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 104; cf. also pp. 107-108).

459    “We have written to you, venerable Directors, Professors, and dear Students, with the desire that you work ever more eagerly in your formation and in the work of forming our youth. The future of the Congregation depends on you; what you are, the Congregations will be; if you prove perfect in your formation work, we will have a perfect Congregation; if you are negligent, you will cause the Congregation irreparable damage. (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, ColCC., p. 533).

460    “Lastly, if the government of our Communities, and especially of the Formation Centres, is not well regulated, vocations will not be cultivated… The Formation Centre is the mould for Missionaries: it should be perfect. It is the source of missionary life: it should be pure, abundant and uncontaminated. It is the root: it should be healthy, vigorous and well rooted” (N. GARCÍA, Vocación…, ColCC., pp. 354-355).

           Together with the novicemasters, prefects and ministers, responsible for the integral formation of the novices, students and brothers, there are other persons seriously involved in their formation. Our Congregational documents continuously speak about them (N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 104). For superiors, formators and confessors, see the reserved circular on chastity, by N. GARCÍA, Conducta de los Superiores, Confesores y demás encargados de la formación en nuestros Colegios [Behaviour of Superiors, Confessors and other Persons-in-Charge of the Formation in Our Formation Centres], dated 5 June 1938 (Cf. AG CMF: 9, 8, 54).

461    N. GARCÍA, FRMC., p. 102.

462    PH. MAROTO, circular letter on La Obra del Templo al Corazón de María y Colegio Internacional en Roma [The Work of the Shrine of the Heart of Mary and the International College in Rome], Annales, 31 (1935), pp. 259-264. For the Statutes of the College, cf. Ib., pp. 13-16.

463    PH. MAROTO, circular on Algunos puntos de observancia religiosa [Some Points of Religious Observance], Annales, 31 (1935), pp. 145-186.

464    PH. MAROTO, Ib., p. 149.

465    PH. MAROTO, Ib., pp. 164-166.

466    PH. MAROTO, Ib., p. 177.

467    PH. MAROTO, circular on the priesthood In Litteras Encyclicas Ssmi. Domini Nostri Pii Papae XI “De Sacerdotio Catholico” [On the Encyclical Letter of Pope Pius XI on Catholic Priesthood], Annales, 32 (1936), pp. 189-191, 239-261; ColCC., pp. 458-488.

468    PH. MAROTO, Ib., p. 479.

469    PH. MAROTO, circular on Las Misiones en la Congregación, Annales, 33 (1937), pp. 147-153; ColCC., pp. 308-315.

470    PH. MAROTO, Ib., p. 312. The suggestions appear in Fr. Raymond Ribera’s note, Por nuestras Misiones [For our Missions], Annales, 33 (1937), pp. 11-13.

471    PH. MAROTO, Ib., p. 312.

472    “We want to say a word also to our beloved young students in our formation centres. Non-Christian Missions constitute a great future for the Congregation and you are called to carry it out for God’s glory. This will bring consolation to the divine Heart of Jesus, joy to the Heart of our sweetest Mother, honour to the Institute that received you and takes care of you with maternal care, and will be your own glory and crown. Do not be enticed by ministries that are easily combined with a comfortable, easy-going life, unworthy of a son of the most dynamic Fr. Claret; or those that are glamorous in the eyes of people (…)” (PH. MAROTO, Ib., pp. 312-313).

473    Among other writings of Fr. SCHWEIGER on various formative aspects, the following circulars may be consulted:

           • De studiis in Congregatione impense fovendis [On Studies that Are to Be painstakingly Cultivated in the Congregation] Annales, 45 (1959-1960), pp. 151-165.

           • Instructio de clericorum vitae spiritualis formatione liturgica [Instruction on the Liturgical Formation of the Clerics’ Spiritual Life] Annales, 48 (1965-1966), pp. 5-9.

           • Centenarium approbationis Pontificiae Nostrae Congregationis in luce Concilii Vaticani II [Centennial of the Pontifical Approval of our Congregation in the light of Vatican II Council], Annales, 48 (1965-1966), pp. 203-239.

474    P. SCHWEIGER, circular letter De vocationibus cooptandis, seligendis, colendis et de dono propriae vocationis aestimando, Annales, 43 (1955), pp. 155-176). The quotations will refer to Annales, but the texts transcribed in the original Spanish book are taken from the Spanish translation published in the Crónica de la Provincia Claretiana de Castilla, 155 (1955), pp. 167-175 and 156 (1956), pp. 199-207.

475    CATALOGUS C.M.F., Rome 1955, pp. 255.

476    P. SCHWEIGER, De vocationibus cooptandis…, p. 156.

477    Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, De vocationibus cooptandis…, p. 156.

478    “Because of our intimate connection with Holy Mother Church and our common mission, our (Claretian) Family considers itself its ally and shares its worry and concern. This is all the more so, because of the aim our Founder gave us, namely, seeking the salvation of all people throughout the world (Cons., P. I, n.2); using all possible means (Ib. II, 63); preaching God’s word to all sorts of people (Ib.). All of us are fully aware and deeply regret how far we still are from attaining this broad aim. Very vast fields are already white for the harvest (Jn 4, 4); indeed, the harvest is rich, but the workers are few (Lk 10, 2). Therefore, alas!, great is the harvest that lies on the Lord’s field and is not gathered in the barn for lack of workers and reapers, because of the scarcity of Priests and Missionaries” (P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., p. 156).

479    “In truth, how meagre is the number of Missionaries, Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary; how small the number of Priests in our Congregation, if we look at the broadness of our aim and of our mission. Because, even though the increase of the Congregation is constant, it is still not adequate to our aim; it is too slow for the more than centenary age of the Congregation, and too small for the number of apostolic schools and of Postulants attending them” (P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., p. 156).

480    “It is also very important that, in our religious Family, spiritual life be greatly appreciated, painstakingly fostered by the Superiors (curent Superiores, we read in can. 595,1), and practised by all the members, so that we may truly be called and be Sons of the Im. Heart of the Bl. V. Mary. Because Christ our Lord came to the world so that all may have life and have it abundantly (Jn 10, 10). And now He sends religious and priestly vocations mainly to those religious Families where spiritual life is loved and cultivated in such a way that those who are called may be imbued with it and possess it, not in any small degree, but abundantly. We even think that our Lord Jesus Christ, in distributing vocations, keeps that paradoxical distribution: “The one who has will be given more and he will have in abundance. But the one who does not have will be deprived of even what he has” (Mt 13, 12). And why should we be surprised that Jesus Christ would send those whom he calls to holiness and apostolate to those religious Families where they would be able to attain more securely and more fully the aim of their vocation? Or, on the contrary, that He would keep them away from those Institutes where the grace of vocation might perhaps become useless? Let us, therefore, dear brothers, do our best so that in our religious Family spiritual life be dearly loved and all virtues painstakingly cultivated. We will be getting many and good vocations if we do this.” (P. SCHWEIGER, De vocationibus cooptandis…, pp. 157-158).

481    “Apostolic generosity. If both the Congregation and its Provinces generously offer workers for the Lord’s vineyard, unafraid of incurring any loss but rather convinced that this would be a gain, we believe that this generosity would be another means to attract vocations to the Congregation. Let us not hesitate to give from our scarcity in order to favour those parts of our Congregation or of the world that suffer under extreme indigence of apostolic workers (…). Let us rest assured that He will keep His word, who said: “Give and it will be given to you; and you will receive a good measure, pressed down, full and running over. For the measure you give will be the measure you receive back (Lk 6, 38). Because God knows well that the Congregation and the Provinces, leaving aside their own utility and necessity, recruit, form and direct vocations to the most pressing aim.

           On the other hand, we are not lacking generous young men who, attracted by the title and by the hope of doing apostolate in the missions, come into the Congregation. There are also others who, during their studies, offer themselves time and again to go to the missions, even the most difficult ones. Such generosity, when accompanied by other suitable conditions, is a sure sign of missionary vocation. And if this missionary vocation, in turn, is joyfully supported by the Superiors and offered to the Lord for God’s Vineyard, will be a token of new vocations” (P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., p. 158).

482    “It is very important for the Congregation that the number of its members increase as much as possible. However efforts should be exerted not to act hastily and inconsiderately in the admission of candidates. We should indeed ardently desire the increase of the Congregation and its extension throughout the whole world and, to this end, we should unceasingly ask the Lord of the harvest to send labourers to his harvest. However, it would be very harmful for the Congregation to admit into its bosom those who are not called, those who are ignorant or possess a bad character (Const. I, 74). Certainly, a lamentable and irreparable harm would be inflicted on the religious Family should this warning of our Fr. Founder not be heeded as faithfully as the previous injunction to increase the number of members. The same would be the case if, against the Founder’s advise, unworthy and unfit candidates should be admitted or if, once admitted, they would be retained or admitted to the Noviciate, to the religious Profession and even to the Priesthood itself” (P. SCHWEIGER, De vocationibus cooptandis…, pp. 160-161).

483    P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., p. 161.

           “We should be convinced that vocational screening is the best guarantee of the growth of the Congregation, since good members are an appeal for many. On the other hand, the lack of screening is a sure cause of decrease and ruin for the Congregation, since members of little worth repel the most valuable ones. Screening of vocations will afford the Congregation strength and vigour” (Ib. p. 162).

484    Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., pp. 162-163.

485    Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, De vocationibus cooptandis…, p. 163.

486    Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., pp. 164-165.

487    “(…) the education and formation of the candidate to religious life cannot be sectionalised in such a way as to cultivate first the natural and then the supernatural virtues. Formation is an organic evolution of human values and, as such, is spontaneous, gradual and harmonic” (Ib., p. 165).

488    “And, since religious life is nothing but an imitation of Christ made norm and example of life, the young candidates, from the very beginning, should be initiated in this new form of life through suitable instructions and exercises that are fit to their condition and capacity” (Ib. p. 166).

489    “It is important that this family breeze be felt mainly by those who come from the world to the Congregation, so that when they come near us, especially near the children and young postulants, they may be reminded of that Bonum est nos hic esse, it’s good to be here” (P. SCHWEIGER, Ib., p. 164).

490    This decline of the esteem for one’s own vocation “undoubtedly manifests itself in the unbelievable thoughtlessness with which some religious ask for dispensation from their vows. Some, immediately after their profession, because they do not feel strong enough to keep their vows. Others, soon after ordination, lured by the ease with which they can outside land a good job, by which, as they claim, they will be able to help their parents, or some relatives in need, or keep them away from losing social status. Lastly, there are some who, perhaps after rendering excellent service, when some adversity comes, common life and submission to the Superiors become too heavy for them, and so they strive to obtain the decree of secularisation” (Ib. p. 167).

491    Ib., p. 167.

492    “By necessity, it will happen that those who, at the proper time, were not well screened, later in life will declare themselves impotent to carry out the duties of religious life” (Ib., p. 167).

493    “Perhaps too much attention is given to preparing the young religious for the works and external activities of the Institute, to the extent of causing harm to what should be the soul of all activity of the religious, to wit, inner life. Perhaps more thought is given to forming a good labourer than a good religious” (Ib., p. 167).

494    Cf. Ib., p. 168.

495    Cf. Ib., pp. 168-169.

496    “In order to maintain in our Family the grace of fidelity to religious vocation and to increase everyday the appreciation of that same vocation, first of all each one should pray for himself. But we should also confidently pray for all our brothers, since vocation is a great gift, a freely given grace, which we can lose or which can be taken away from us, if we are unworthy of it. In addition, we strongly recommend that, always and everywhere in our Communities, a spiritual and family atmosphere be created and fostered. In this way, all in the house and those who may come to it will be encouraged and strengthened. They will joyfully and gratefully bless the hour when our divine Mother called them to the Congregation and, from the bottom of their heart, they will ask her for the grace of fidelity to their vocation till death” (Ib., p. 170).

497    XV GENERAL CHAPTER., Annales, 39 (1949-1950), p. 125.

498    CMF. Reglamento de la Obra de las vocaciones Claretianas, Annales, 39 (1949-1950), pp. 461-467.

499    Cf. Reglamento de la Obra de las…, pp. X, XII.2.

500    CMF. El Reclutador de Vocaciones, Rome 1951, pp. 22. It speaks of the criteria for vocational promotion, the means, methods and most suitable times, practical orientations for the promoter, the reports and necessary examinations, etc…

501    CMF. Secretariado de Vocaciones Claretianas, Annales, 46 (1962), pp. 348-350. In the Presentation to the Provincial Superiors, it is stated: “We have been doing something, and even much, until now in the field of vocations. But starting with the year when our Work of Claretian Vocations began, linked with the Prefecture of Formation since the last General Chapter, various trials have been made and not to listen to the lessons of experience would be an unpardonable temerity “ (p. 348).

502    GENERAL PREFECTURE OF FORMATION, Manual del Seminarista Claretiano, Madrid 1962, pp. 183.

503    Cf. pp. 9-10, nn. 1 and 5.

504    Ib., p. 21, n. 1.

505    Cf. Ib., p. 18, n. 6.

506    R. RIBERA, El Novicio Instruido [The well-Instructed Novice], Madrid 1931, pp. 479; reference in Prologue, p. X.

507    In this book “my brothers will not find other merit than the fact that it was inspired by obedience and drafted with love and affection for our young men, the hope of the Congregation. Also the fact that in it are compiled and condensed the teachings of our holy Founder and of some of his venerable companions who had such great influence in the formation of the first generations of Missionaries, glory of our beloved Congregation” (Prologue, pp. X-XI).

508    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 25.

509    The pedagogical orientations offered should help achieve the objective of the Noviciate, so that “all who make use of them may be formed in the true spirit of the Congregation as legitimate Sons of the Heart of Mary and later become indefatigable Apostles and glorious heralds of the divine glory” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, Prologue, p. XII).

510    “The young are in absolute need of direction; (…) but they are not to expect everything from it. (…) Certainly, the young are to follow the guidance of their novicemasters and superiors, but they should co-operate with it by their own personal action, through rational and constant application of certain principles of self-formation that will powerfully contribute to the integral and harmonic development of all their faculties” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 182).

511    “Besides the fact that an independent self-formation brings out odd, queer and eccentric individuals, and this is very far from our character and vocation.” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 183).

512    “Furthermore, taking into consideration our natural weakness and the scarce self-knowledge we possess, all this work of self-formation necessarily demands, besides God’s natural and supernatural concurrence, the co-operation of other external agents. We are referring to our Superiors and our own companions” (Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 189).

513    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 183. This knowledge is needed “so that, knowing the good qualities of both, and the deficiencies that usually accompany them, they may foster and improve the former and eliminate the latter, if possible. Should this not be possible, at least they may correct them, taking advantage of their activity and re-directing their natural tendencies towards what is good” (Ib.).

514    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 183-184. Since “it usually takes such deep root in us that, if it is lacking, it can hardly be made up for; and if it is wrong, it is harder yet to correct it; (…). But, however difficult it may be, it cannot be denied that a determined will can obtain glorious triumphs over defective habits acquired in the bosom of an ignorant, neglected family, or a family less favoured by the circumstances or social atmosphere. This is especially true if this determined will is placed at the service of a noble ideal and aided by divine grace,” (Ib.).

515    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 184-185. “He should also consult on the shortcomings of his own intellect, such as shallowness, volubility, hard-headedness, intellectual squint, that is, the defect of those who have the tendency always to see things contrary to what others see, and similar, and believe what his educators tell him about this matter, (…). The young man in formation should also follow the decision of his superiors regarding the studies or subjects he should devote himself to, after complying with all that has been prescribed” (Ib.).

516    Cr. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 185. Since “grace operates on nature and the more pliant and developed that nature is, the more satisfactory the result will be” (Ib., p. 185). Among the habits a novice should foster are: the habit of order, of cleanliness, the sense of personal dignity, the habit of veracity, of respect to others, of kindliness, compassion and deference, of submission and self-denial, of stability and constancy, of magnanimity and fortitude, etc…” (Cf. Ib., pp. 186-189).

517    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 190.

518    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 214-216.

519    It exists “when one aims in his acts only to give glory to God, to please God, or to love God” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 305-306).

520    “This upright intention is a true heavenly alchemy that changes into gold of charity and gives supernatural value to everything it touches, even the most indifferent actions, such as eating, sleeping, etc., and increases the merit of those works that are good in themselves multiplying the sources of new merits, depending on the different intentions one has, as the holy Founder explains in chapter XXVIII of his Autobiography (part I)” (R. RIBERA, EL Novicio…, p. 310).

521    “Thus they will be at peace, whatever the result of their actions may be. They will be indifferent to any disposition whatsoever of Providence or Superiors. They will rejoice when their brothers excel and succeed, even though they themselves remain in the shadow. They will grow in merits and holiness and will become worthy of the grace of apostolate and of eternal glory” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 310).

522    “In fact, the young novices, more out of thoughtlessness than out of malice, may easily fall into the deception of being content with only an apparent and easy-going virtue. This may happen because they are encouraged, on one hand, by the desire to persevere in the vocation they have received, and feel, on the other, that they lack the spirit of self-denial and sacrifice demanded by solid virtue. In this situation, there may be a mixture of a certain good intention of pleasing God, and a considerable dose of disorderly self-love, together with twisted intentions that frequently escape their attention, unless a sensible Novicemaster makes them aware of it” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 307).

523    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 304-310.

524    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 310-311.

525    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 27-28.

526    “This is the reason why our Novices should painstakingly dedicate themselves to practice, as perfectly as they can, the various prescribed spiritual acts, and others that are customary in the Congregation, or those that they themselves may have chosen to foster their own devotion. This is what we are going to teach them in this most important section, about which we wish to call the whole attention of our young ones” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 70).

527    “Our young novices should pay attention to the emphasis with which our Father Founder exhorts them to devote themselves totally to the practice of virtue (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 215).

           “However, we are not trying here to give a broad and detailed explanation of all these virtues, but only to initiate our novices and help the young professed in the practice of the same. Therefore, we leave such explanation to the conferences of the respective persons-in-charge. Here we will only propose some motivations for those virtues and will indicate the most common means to attain them, always on the basis of the way of doing things in our Noviciates and Formation Centres, with a view to our missionary vocation” (Ib., pp. 216-217).

528    “Since God is present everywhere, the novices should always and everywhere behave with great external modesty and inner recollection out of respect to God’s divine Majesty. In order to favour this behaviour that faith inspires, we will explain in this fourth section the conduct that the novices should have in the various places they frequent during the day. In this way, always and everywhere they will spread around them the good odour of Christ, and will show themselves as good Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 366-367).

529    R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 125.

530    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 125-127.

531    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 372-374.

532    Concretely they were recommended to memorise the compilation of sentences of Sacred Scripture from the book El Tesoro del Humanista [Treasure of the Humanist], by Fr. Girbau, the main parts of the letters of St. Paul and other important passages from the New and the Old Testament (Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 373-374).

533    “In the first place, the divine Scripture, above all the New Testament, in which he will find the pure truth in its very fount. Finding pleasure in the reading of the Sacred Books, especially of the Holy Gospel, is a sign that one has the spirit of Jesus Christ and a token of predestination (Jn 8, 47).

           Then it is good to take a liking to ascetical readings of solid doctrine, such as the ascetical woks of St. Alphonsus Mary Liguori, those of St. John of the Cross, St. Therese, our Holy Founder, Granada, V. Lapuente, Blessed Avila and, especially, Rodríguez, etc.

           In the third place, they should read lives of Saints and, among them, that of our Founder and of his sons who were outstanding in virtue should deserve their attention and preference, together with the lives of religious and missionaries Saints” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 140).

534    “It goes without saying that the novices must read and re-read the books in which they are supposed to imbibe the genuine spirit of the Congregation. Some such books are the holy Constitutions, the “Espíritu de la Congregación,” this book itself “El Novicio Instruido,” and the works of some of our Missionaries about the Heart of Mary, zeal for souls, etc.” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 140).

535    CC. 1924, part I, ch. XXIV.

536    Ib., p. 216.

537    Cf. Aut. Nn. 438-453.

538    Ib., pp. 218-219.

539    It is good to keep in mind that “the manifestation of the spirit is not obligatory in conscience. Neither the Holy Church (c. 530), nor the Congregation (Ord., 562), want to impose it. But both the Church and the Congregation, in the same aforementioned quotations, insistently exhort not to leave aside such an efficacious means for perfection, which has ordinarily been practised by the Saints” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 175-176).

540    Fr. Ribera says, quoting Fr. Claret: “We could not explain better the usefulness and the importance of the manifestation of conscience, than by repeating the pondering words with which our holy Founder extols it to the Seminarians in his Colegial Instruido. Let us respectfully listen to him:

           “(…) Regarding the need of having a good spiritual director, both the Old and the New Testaments, the masters of spiritual life and all the books and treatises written on this matter are in agreement.

           “It is not enough, then, to have a confessor to whom all sins are manifested with all sincerity. We also need a teacher that will guide us on the way of virtue. It is indispensable to have a guide that will go ahead of us to lead us in an unknown area such as the designs that God has over us. We need an expert captain that will point out to us the reefs of a sea where shipwrecks happen so frequently (…) Even the Saints, however much enlightened they were, and though they were highly experienced in God’s ways, made use of this practice. They looked upon it, in keeping with the usual way of Divine Providence, as the most suitable means for the progress and perfection of souls: Hanc viam tenuere omnes Sancti [all the Saints followed this way] (St. Vincent Ferrer).

           Such is also the practice of the more virtuous persons. If asking for advice and following it with docility is a sign of prudence for them, it will certainly be foolishness to think that it is not necessary, and that one can be guided only by the impulses of the heart and by the lights of one’s own spirit alone (…).

           We should approach him as we would an angel, or Jesus Christ, or God himself. We should talk to him with full confidence and with all the sincerity demanded by the rank he holds towards us, as a prudent adviser, a kindly physician, a faithful friend. Finally we should have a childlike submission, docility, openness and simplicity toward him” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 177-179).

541    “This practice is so important for our young members, novices and professed and even priests, above all during the first years of apostolate, that, without it, it will be almost morally impossible to overcome the difficulties and dangers that will come their way in the development of their spiritual and missionary life” (R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, p. 179).

542    Cf. R. RIBERA, El Novicio…, pp. 180-181.

543    “Regarding the frequency, when the Constitutions advice the monthly spiritual accounting on the recollection day, they do not pretend to curtail the freedom to do it more often. On the contrary, in various places (part II, n. 27; part III, n. 2 and others) they presuppose or recommend this greater frequency which becomes a true necessity for the young. In our Noviciates, it is customary for the Novices to give an account to the Master weekly and, in the case of the Scholasticates, not to postpone it more than 15 days” (R. Ribera, El Novicio…, pp. 177-179).

544    Ib., Prologue XI.

545    Cf. Ib., pp. 412-459.

546    CMF, Ordo Studiorum Generalis pro Missionariis Congregationis Filiorum Imm. Cordis Beatae Mariae Virginis [General Plan of Studies for the Missionaries Sons of the Imm. Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary], Rome 1929, pp. 98.

547    Ordo Studiorum Generalis Congregationis Missionariorum Filiorum Immaculati Cordis B. Mariae V., Rome 1959, pp. 157. Cf. P. SCHWEIGER, De studiis…, Annales 45 (1959-1960), pp. 151-165.

548    Cf. arts. 2.1., 88-129, 194-233 and appendices, pp. 87-80.

549    Cf. arts. 87-150 and appendix, pp. 129-132.

550    Cf. arts. 233-260. 

551    Cf. arts. 153, 157-165.

552    Cf. arts. 120, 128.

553    Cf. arts. 118.2, 119.2.

554    Cf. arts. 192-199. In the study of Moral Theology and Liturgy, great emphasis was given to the practice of solving “moral and liturgical cases” (Cf. O.S.G., 1929, arts. 123.3, 165; 1959, arts. 129.4, 199.4, 268.1.1st).

555    Cf. arts. 141, 164.3, 167.

556    Cf. arts. 140-150. Regarding the organisation of the pastoral year in the Congregation, cf. Annales, 42 (1953-1954), pp. 400-404.

557    XII GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 18 (1921-1922), pp. 901-922, 925-975.

558    Cf. Ib., pp. 914-915.

559    Cf. XII GENERAL CHAPTER, Dispositions 70-75, pp. 952-953.

560    The declaration should include these items:

           “a)                That he has the resolve to observe the Constitutions, Ordinations and Dispositions of the Congregation as long as he remains in its bosom.

           b)  That he will, gratuitously and without any claim for compensation, render the services that may be required from him while he remains in the Congregation and, therefore, he will not ask for anything, should he leave the Institute.

           c)  Similarly, that he disclaims any indemnity that the laws may grant by reason of industrial accident, should he suffer any.

           d)  That he is not aware of any impediment to enter the Congregation.

           e)  That he is seeking admission into the Congregation without fraud or deceit, and without any coercion whatsoever through violence or fear.

           f)   That he agrees that: 1st. all the letters that he may write or may be addressed to him be opened by the Superior or the person commissioned by him. 2nd. all his faults or errors be manifested to the Superiors by anyone who might be aware of them” (Ib., Dispositions 72, p. 952).

           The declaration should be signed by the Superior or his delegate, and two witnesses not connected with the Congregation. The postulant should be informed that the Superiors may dismiss him if it should be discovered that he has kept back some excluding impediment or hidden sickness (Cf. Ib., Dispositions 73, pp. 952-953).

561    Cf. Ib., Dispositions 94, p. 957.

562    Ib., Dispositions 84, p. 955.

563    The declaration states:

           “a)                That the novice has the intention to profess in the Congregation and to remain in it until death, should there be no unforeseen obstacle.

           b)  That he is not aware of any impediment nor has he hidden any important impediment that might hinder his admission to profession.

           c)  That he accepts all the obligations and the most difficult things implied by religious life, as practised in the Congregation. In particular: 1. That his defects, faults and errors may be disclosed to his immediate or mediate superiors by any one who may be aware of them, without his previous knowledge. 2. That, even if one has professed as a cleric, he may temporarily be occupied in manual labours, if there is reason for it, at the discretion of the local or major Superior. He may even be definitively transferred to the category of Coadjutor Brother, should there be cause for it, at the discretion of the Provincial Superior in the case of persons in temporary vows and of the Superior General for those in perpetual vows. 3. That the Superiors may assign him to any part of the world and to the most difficult and dangerous missions, any time they deem it convenient. 4. That he accepts and will accept any position in the Congregation, whether lowly or honourable, to which he might be legitimately assigned.

           d)  That, should he leave the Congregation, he will not demand any compensation for the services rendered, which are totally devoid of any right to retribution according to the law and, therefore, he renders them freely and disinterestedly” (Ib., Dispositions 96, p. 958).

564    Cf. Ib., Dispositions 90, pp. 958-959.

565    The sense is as follows:

           “a) That, even if they were admitted in the category of clerics, they should be available not only for the priestly ministries, but also for the menial tasks proper of the Coadjutor Brothers. They could be dedicated to these tasks not only as a practice of virtue but also in punishment for transgressions or as a help in the House. b) That they will be obliged to accept any position for the good of the Congregation, be it an honourable one, like that of Superior, or lowly and worthless, to which they may be legitimately assigned. c) That the clerics, for any serious cause, at the discretion and by decree of the Superior General with his Consultors, after perpetual vows, and of the Provincial Superiors with his, during the temporal vows, may be assigned even perpetually to the class of Coadjutor Brothers, in which case, they should repeat the noviciate; otherwise they should obtain apostolic dispensation. d) That the Superiors may send them to all parts of the world, and they will have the obligation to go, should they be sent” (Ib., Dispositions 90, pp. 956-957).

566    Cf. Ib., Dispositions 12, 112, p. 977.

567    Cf. CC. 1870, n. 108; cc. 969,3; 970; Pius X, Apost. Let. 2 July 1912; 7 June 1913.

568    Cf. Ib., Dispositions 113, p. 961.

569    Cf. Ib., Dispositions 10-11, 114, 121, p. 936.

570    Cf. Ib., p. 931. Ministers “who would painstakingly care for the brothers, giving them the necessary attention, especially with a view to their spiritual progress” (Ib.).

571    Cf. Ib., pp. 920-922.

572    Ib., pp. 928-929.

573    Cf. Ib., p. 929.

574    “The recommended remedies to shun the lack of fidelity to one’s vocation are mainly: a) To give painstaking attention to the admission to profession and ordination, and not to let ourselves be carried by considerations of an ill-advised compassion, which is contrary to true charity. And if ever, during the time of noviciate or temporal vows, certain individuals should present some doubts, the same should be resolved by means of special tests before they come to the definitive steps. b) To choose, as much as possible, good Masters, Prefects, Superiors, Ministers, and see to it that they give special and painstaking attention to the brothers, especially in the spiritual aspect. c) The newly professed and the young Priests should only gradually and with caution be placed in contact with the older ones. d) See to it that, as much as possible, there be more than two Brothers in each house so that they may help one another and may be attended to with greater diligence. e) Exert great care in helping all avoid dangers and overcome difficulties, giving them tasks that are commensurate to them. f) Not to admit those who need or can be foreseen to need to help their parents for lack of means on the part of the latter. If the need arises, the Congregation should give the appropriate help. g) Foster more the spirit of piety toward our own. h) Assign Prefects for spiritual matters for the entire Congregation and for each Province; their task should be to give due attention to the general observance of the Congregation and of their respective provinces. i) When the families ask for help or express the need they are in, that correspondence should be sent to the General Government who should take care of the need and give it due attention. It should not be given to the person concerned lest he falter in his vocation due to the natural feeling over the need of his own family. j) Exert efforts so that those who have lost or slackened off in the religious spirit may recover it. To this end, all fatherly means should be exhaust, such as advices, exhortations, corrections, even fatherly punishments and, if need be, change of house or even of Province. When these fatherly means do not produce the expected results, recourse may be had to disciplinary means, generally reserved to Major Superiors. Some such disciplinary means may be commands by virtue of the vow of obedience, more serious, and usually public, penalties or punishments, special vigilance, and canonical monitions, which should be applied more often and more efficiently than until now.” (Ib., pp. 929-930).

575    XIII GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 30 (1934), pp. 421-427, 437-463, 502-531, 567-572, 853-865.

576    Cf. p. 443.

577    Cf. Ibc, pp. 448, 454-455, 527-531.

578    Cf. Ib., p. 516.

579    Cf. Ib., pp. 514-515.

580 Cf. Ib., pp. 459-460. Among the resolutions taken, the following may be highlighted:

           “1.                Efforts should be made to give the Brothers the designated conferences with regularity. The Priest in charge of these conferences is the Minister; in his defect, the Superior or another assigned by him. These conferences should be given at a specified time, and should not be omitted even if there should be only one Brother; but in this case, they could take the form of particular conversations with him, in which he would be instructed on his main duties with kindness and trust (…).

           (…)

           5.  Fr. Minister should be with the Brothers as much as possible and, with kindness and interest, attend to them, instructing, consoling and encouraging them, being a true father to them. In this matter we strongly call the attention of everyone, because of the responsibility that the negligence of these duties might bring upon them in the eyes of God and of the Congregation. Neither should the Superior forget them, but rather take care of them, as ordered by the Constitutions, and see to it that they properly perform the acts of piety and dedicate themselves to the tasks proper of their class.

           6.  This care and concern should be afforded especially to the young Brothers, above all, in the first years of their religious life, during which they should ordinarily remain in the noviciates or seminaries and not be assigned to regular houses.

           7.  The spirit of industry and occupation during working hours should be recommended to the Brothers, along with due respect for the Priests, which should be emphasised by sanctioning all infractions of the same. In the same way, the priests and other members should in turn treat the Brothers with respect, charity and kindness, never showing the least manifestation of scorn, as befits the sons of the same Mother. The Brothers should not be allowed to use the title of Reverend, which is reserved to the Priests” (Ib., pp. 516-518).

581    Cf. Anales, 27 (1931), pp. 145-150, 273-275.

582    Cf. Ib., pp. 460, 518.

583    Cf. Ib., p. 461.

584    Cf. Ib., pp.. 448-449.

585    XIV EXTR. GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 34 (1938), pp. 9-13, 47-68.

586    Cf. ib., pp. 52-54.

587    “However, with regard to the dismissal of children who do not seem to be promising, certain late developments should be taken into consideration. Nor should too much importance be given to some defects that are proper of the age, unless they are signs of bad character or evil and immoral inclinations. Never should the dismissal of immoral persons, or reasonably suspected of being immoral, be delayed” (Cf. Ib., p. 53).

588    On this matter, Fr. N. García wrote the circular El año de perfección religiosa y misionera [The Year of Religious and Missionary Perfection] (Annales, 36 (1940-1941) PP. 97-116, with attached Regulations).

589    Among them:

        “+  the study of religious, clerical and missionary pedagogy, both theoretical and practical;

         +   putting those who seem to offer hopes of being good formators, side by side with others who competently carry out this office;

         +   having some competent priest write a book on the formation of our members.

         +   holding meetings of Prefects and Masters under the leadership of an experienced priest with sound judgement.

         +   making use of interprovincial Colleges or Formation Centres, when a particular Province lacks the necessary elements.

         +   Prefects of Postulants should not be too young; it would be fitting to choose for this office priests who know the character and the way of life of the native children. The Masters and Prefects of the Professed should have the canonical age;

         +   for the formation of Superiors, books on the duties of a good Superior should be read, summarised in the Circular of the Fr. General on Superiors, (Anales, 1927, p. 195). In the same way, for the formation of Students, the Circular published by the same Superior General on this matter is strongly recommended (Anales, 1932, p. 225)” (Cf. Ib., p. 54).

590    Cf. Ib., p. 54.

591    Cf. Ib., pp. 57-60.

592    In exceptional cases and for special reasons, under certain conditions, two school years could be combined into one.

593    The study of Ascetical Theology, with a practical and casuistry character, should have been made throughout the previous four years.

594    They should be endowed with qualities such as health, intelligence, solid piety, equanimity, fluency of speech, etc…, that will ensure good results in higher formation, success in the academic mission and will warrant a good service to the Congregation (Cf. Ib., p. 60).

595    Cf. Ib., pp. 60-65.

596    “This higher culture, in the case of our members, should always presuppose a solid and mature ecclesiastical and theological formation. It should be obtained by attending official centres, both national and foreign, cultivating scientific relations, collaborating in magazines, keeping in touch with cultural associations, etc., etc., always, of course, under the direction of obedience” (Cf. Ib., p. 61).

597    “Taking for granted a solid formation in scholastic Philosophy and Theology, with all due caution and under the continuous and attentive supervision of Superiors, it would be fitting that some of our Priests should devote themselves to the study of non-scholastic Philosophy. This would contribute: a) to enrich their own knowledge and modernise it in the good sense of the word; and b) to learn the language of that Philosophy and familiarise themselves with its way of thinking, so that their apostolate may be more efficacious” (Cf. Ib., p. 53).

598    The conditions indicated for this apostolate are:

           “1st. A solid and foolproof cultural theological formation to avoid the dangers of contagion and to win and never be defeated when faced by them.

           2nd. An equally solid religious and pious formation of their spiritual life, based on principles of supernatural faith, and faithfully practised.

           3rd. That the aim of this apostolate is to win people and draw them to Jesus Christ.

           4th. That this apostolate must be absolutely framed within religious discipline, with constant and diligent vigilance on the part of the Superiors, and with absolute submission and dependence on the part of those who exercise this apostolate.

           5th. That the culture thus obtained should be primarily and mainly aimed at our own members.

           6th. An open confession of Religious and of one’s own religious profession should at all times be recommended, with a few exceptions that should be approved by the Superiors.

           7th. Therefore, the clerical and religious habit should always be worn with holy pride, always keeping in mind canon 596, for the cases foreseen by the same, (…)” (Ib.).

599    Cf. Ib., p. 57.

600    Cf. Ib., p. 55.

601    XV GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 40 (1949-1950), pp. 106-140.

602    Ib., pp. 125-126.

603    Cf. Ib., pp. 126 and 129.

604    Thus, with regards to the specifically spiritual formation, the Chapter confirmed all the foregoing and “acknowledged that in this matter we have a magnificent theory. We have an exceptional chapter indeed, inspired on the Holy Constitutions, chapter XXV of Part One, De Scholasticis, aside from the others devoted to the Novices, Novicemaster and Prefect of Students. We also have very wise norms in our CODEX, which makes use of the experiences of Experimental Psychology, and thorough circular letters of the Superiors General. The last General Chapter gave too its own practical norms for the formation of the personnel, as may be seen in ANNALES, 1938, pp. 52-53” (Cf. Ib., p. 129).

605    The Chapter asked for greater strictness in formation. Thus, speaking of the lack of observance, the Chapter indicated, among other causes, the following: “On the part of formators, a certain condescension and failure to inculcate sufficiently the spirit of self-denial and sacrifice” (Ib., p. 131).

606    Cf. CC. 1924, Part I, ch. XXX and C.I.A., N. 410.

607    The reasons for such petition were: avoiding routine, which is so harmful in this very vital point of prayer, and adapting it better to the particular needs of each one (Cf. Ib., pp. 121).

608    This number says that the novices, students and brothers should make their prayer faithfully and in common (conjunctim).

609    Cf. Ib., pp. 121-122.

610    Cf. Ib., p. 127.

611    Cf. Ib., pp. 127-128.

612    Cf. Ib., p. 128.

613    Cf. CC. 1924, Part I, n. 2.

614    Cf. ed. 1929, art. V.

615    Cf. Ib., pp. 129-130.

616    The Chapter recognised that “the situation we have reached of infrequent practice (of the manifestation of conscience) after the completion of studies is lamentable, although the present tendency of the Church is ever more to urge its recommendation, if not its imposition. Its lack of practice or its negligence is, to say the least, a negative argument of the spirit demanded by the religious state” (Ib., pp. 129-130).

617    Cf. c. 530.

618    Cf. Ib., pp. 130-131.

619    “With regard to the scarcity of Brothers that presently afflicts our Congregation, more or less like the others, the Chapter highly praised so many self-denying Brothers who in the present circumstances have to attend to various or all the offices of the Houses” (Ib., p. 131).

620    XVI GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 46 (1961-1962), pp. 67-78, 101-115.

621    “The Chapter, then, is aware of the seriousness of the moment. It has sensed the dangers that surround us everywhere and has given the warning note. And this warning is not given to make anyone feel pessimistic. It is a fact that everywhere the Congregation works intensely and has acquired a prestige that perhaps is not consistent with the number of its members. The phenomenon we are referring to is not exclusively ours. It is common to all Institutes. Perhaps we are among the least affected by the present situation and among those who are more successfully overcoming the difficulties. The President of the Chapter insistently exhorted everyone to be optimistic and to place their trust in God and in the Heart of Mary. He encouraged each one to do whatever he could, to undertake anything obedience should entrust him. In this way we would be able to overcome the difficulties and vigorously continue the progressive rhythm that the Congregation has undertaken these last years, in fidelity to the injunction of its apostolic and dynamic Founder” (Ib., p. 69).

622    Cf. Ib., pp. 101-102, 104-105.

623    With regard to the buildings of our formation centres, the Chapter acknowledged the painstaking effort exerted by the Congregation in the construction and foundation of the international Theologates of Rome and Salamanca, which offer a great hope to the Congregation (Cf. Ib., p. 103).

624    Cf. Ib., pp. 101-103, 107.

625    With regard to studies, the actual sense of the Constitutions (I, 124, 132) on the students’ obligation of daily reciting the lesson to the Prefect was authentically interpreted. Considering the practical impossibility of its implementation, the intention of the legislator is accomplished when the Prefect accompanies the students and keeps track of their academic progress (Cf. Ib., p. 74).

626    Cf. Ib., pp. 105-107.

627    Cf. CC. 1924, Part I, nn. 79-80.

628    Cr. CC. 1924, Part I, n. 74.

629    Ed. 1925, 1940 and 1953. It was translated into Spanish and edited, in 1928 in a synthetic form to be read in the communities, under the title of Ordenaciones y Disposiciones de nuestro Código (Madrid 1928) and in 1955 with the name of Epítome del Derecho Adicional (Madrid 1955).

630    Cf. Praefatium, ed. of 1925, pp. 3-5.

631    We will structure the post-conciliar period contained in this Chapter 6 by six-year periods. This is more pedagogical to grasp the evolution and development of the renewing process that has taken place. On the other hand, taking into consideration its wealth and broadness, we will concisely present only the most important decisions and orientations on vocations and formation.

632    Cf. 1F., n. 2.

633    Cf. 1F., n. 84.

634    Cf. PE., 128 bis.

635    1B., 18-33, 34-37.

636    Cf. 1B., nn. 18, 34.

637    Cf. 1B., n. 22.

638    Cf. 1B., nn. 19, 23-24, 30-31.

639    Cf. 1B., nn. 36-37.

640    Cf. XVII GENERAL CHAPTER, Appendix II, pp. 511-512.

641    Cf. Annales, 1970, pp. 293-319.

642    Cf. 1F., nn. 84, 169.

643    Cf. Dir., n. 265.

644    Cf. Dir., n. 266.

645    Cf. Dir., n. 267.

646    Cf. Dir., nn. 303-305.

647    Other themes related with the formation in ANTHONY LEGHISA, Letter Ordo professionis fratribus nostris proponitur [An Ordo Professionis is presented to our brethren] about the rite of profession on the Congregation (Cf. Annales, 51 (1972), pp. 122).

648    SACRED CONGREGATION FOR RELIGIOUS, De accommodata renovatione institutionis ad vitam religiosam decendam [Renewal and adaptation of Religious Life], 6 February 1969.

649    A. LEGHISA, circular letter A los Superiores Mayores de la Congregación sobre la “Renovationis Causam” [To the Major Superiors of the Congregation on the “Renovationis Causam”], Annales, 50 (1970), pp. 293-296. A. LEGHISA, Decree of the General Government La aplicaciópn de la Instrucción “Renovationis Causam” a nuestra Congregación, [The application of the Instruction “Renovationis Causam” to our Congregation], Annales, 50 (1970), pp. 296-319.

 650   Cf. Decreto, Ib., p. 297.

651    Cf. Decreto, pp. 302-303.

652    A. LEGHISA, circular letter Criterios para una recta formación de los misioneros hermanos, Annales, 50 (1970), pp. 339-352.

653    Ib., p. 340.

654    Cf. Ib., pp. 344-352. 

655    Cf. Decreto, Annales, 51 (1973), p. 199.

656    A. LEGHISA, circular letter Sobre la instauración del diaconado permanente en nuestra Congregación, Annales, 51 (1973), pp. 203-210.

657    Cf. Ib., pp. 207-210.

658    Cr. 2F, n. 31.

659    Cr. 1F. nn. 162-164.

660    Cf. 2F., nn. 32-35.

661    Cf. 2B, n. 34.

662    Cf. XVIII GENERAL CHAPTER, Open Letter, n. 26.

663    Cf. Dir., n.212.

664    Cf. 1F., nn. 84, 169.

665    Cf. Dir., n. 213.

666    Cf. Dir., n. 214.

667    Cf. Dir., nn. 247-249.

668    GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF COSTA RICA, Annales, 52 (1976), pp. 431-472.

669    Cf. Ib., pp. 438, 457, 464-469.

670    A. LEGHISA, circular letter on The Heart of Mary and the Congregation in its Present Moment, Rome 1978, pp. 57; original Spanish in Annales, 53 (1977-1978), pp. 197-231.

671    “It is meant as a guideline for the Congregation with a reference to one of the broadest and deepest dimensions of our missionary charism in the Church of God (…) to single out a few guidelines and suggest a few concrete lines of action aimed at overcoming the present crisis, so as to lead the Congregation toward a greater fidelity in guarding this special gift it has received in the Church” (Cf. A. LEGHISA, The Heart of Mary…, p. 4).

672    Cf. Ib. p. 21.

673    Hence, “the importance of Mary’s maternal presence in our vocation programs, both among those who promote them and in their presentations. The Marian aspect of our charism should be adequately represented to help those who have already received some initial acquaintance with her spiritual maternity, to take it more seriously into account and to discover the Congregation as an adequate place where it is really lived” (Ib., p. 44).

674    Cf. Ib., p. 44.

675    Cf. Ib., p. 45.

676    A. LEGHISA, open letter to the President of Iberia De cursu formationis permanente [On the On-going Formation Course], Annales 52 (1976), pp. 285-290; Message A los participantes al Encuentro de responsables de la pastoral vocacional de Latino América [To the participants of the Meeting of persons-in-charge of vocation ministry in Latin-America], Annales 54 (1979), pp. 37-38.

677    Cf. MCT., n. 228.

678    Cf. MCT., nn. 48, 135, 137.

679    Cf. Dir., n. 173.

680    Cf. Dir., n. 252.

681    In this six-year period the following are also interesting: G. ALONSO, Claret vivo [Claret alive], Presentation of the book: SAN ANTONIO Mª CLARET, Escritos Autobiográficos, ed. prepared by José Mª Viñas and Jesús Bermejo, B.A.C., Madrid 1981. Also, El presbítero claretiano en nuestros documentos posconciliares [The Claretian Priest in our Postconciliar Documents], conference in the First Priestly Week of Vic (19 May 1985). It is also found in G. ALONSO, Al servicio de una comunidad misionera [In the Service of a Missionary Community], Rome-Curia 1991, pp. 87-115.

682    G. ALONSO, circular Los hermanos y la misión claretiana hoy, Annales, 55 (1981), p. 3-14.

683    Cf. Ib., pp. 10-12.

684    G. ALONSO, circular letter Las Constituciones renovadas, Annales 55 (1982), pp. 309-327.

685    Cf. Ib., pp. 311-320.

686    Cf. Ib., Introduction, p. 310.

687    Cf. Ib., p. 321.

688    Cf. Ib., p. 327.

689    Cf. CPR., NN. 66-71.

690    Dir., n. 156.

691    Cf. Dir., n. 167.

692    Cf. Dir., n. 236.

693    In this six-year period, the General Prefecture of Formation published, among other aids, the Cuadernos de formación claretiana [Booklets on Claretian Formation] and the Itinerario formativo claretiano [Claretian Formative Itinerary] (1990).

694    G. ALONSO, Message to the Major Superiors of the Congregation, Gobierno y animación desde las Constituciones (Annales, 57 (1986), pp. 278-287).

695    Reflections on the renewed Constitutions, their function in the animation of our communities and responsibility of superiors in the same (Cf. G. ALONSO, Las Constituciones…, pp. 321-324).

696    Cf. Ib., p. 282.

697    Cf. CPR., N. 59.

698    Cf. circular letter on La comunicación de nuestra experiencia mariana [The communication of our Marian experience], Annales, 58 (1987-1988), pp. 98-100; cf. also G. ALONSO, La Espiritualidad mariana que vivimos [The Marian spirituality we live], Communication during the XXXV Semestral Encounter of the Union of Superiors General, Villa Cavalletti, 25-28 May 1988, in Al servicio de una comunidad misionera [At the service of a missionary community], Rome-Curia 1991, pp. 178-182.

699    “In fact, many of our brothers speak of a presence of the mystery of Mary that has inspired and guided them in the fundamental moments of their life: birth of their vocation, spiritual growth during their formation years, overcoming crises, etc. In sum, a well-defined maternal presence” (G. ALONSO, La Espiritualidad mariana…, pp. 180-181).

700    G. ALONSO, circular letter Claretians in Formation, CF, Annales, 60 (1991-1992), pp. 50-75.

701    “These lines are addressed to all Claretians in the sense that all of us, in keeping with a very strong conviction in the Church (Cf. Potissimum Institutioni, nn. 66-71) and in our own Institute (Cf. CPR., nn. 20-31, 66-71), are in either an initial or an ongoing phase of the process of formation” (G. ALONSO, Claretians in…, p. 51).

702    In the Church, by the publication of the document Potissimum Institutioni (February 2) and the celebration of the Synod of Bishops devoted to the Formation of Priests in the Present Circumstances. In the Congregation, because a cycle of Claretian Renewal Courses was completed, addressed primarily to formation personnel from the different geographic areas of the Institute and because the General Formation Prefecture has continued to distribute study helps on formation topics (Cf. G. ALONSO, Ib., pp. 50).

703    At any rate, it is good to notice the call to reinstate the “Five-Year period” in line with the congregational tradition. “I feel obliged to say that, in view of the situations of our time, there is an urgent need in the Congregation to reinstate a project which, more or less along the lines of our former “Five-Year period” (Quinquenio), can provide our major organisms with a tool for the formation-accompaniment of young Claretians (brothers and priests) during the first years of their ministerial life.” (G. ALONSO, Ib., p. 57.)

704    Cf. Ib., pp. 51-55.

705    CPR., n. 49.

706    “To have well thought-out and articulated this welcoming phase is a sure sign of the sense of responsibility with which an organism is presently concerned with the question of vocations and, at a deeper level, of the way in which its members are living and expressing their own vocation” (G. ALONSO, Ib., p. 54).

707    Cf. Ib., pp. 57-60.

708    Cf. Aut., n. 494.

709    Cf. Ib., pp. 60.

710    CC. 1986, n. 73.

711    Cf. Ib., pp. 61-66.

712    CC. 1986, n. 12.

713    “It is, in effect, a community which has its beginning in God who gives an identical spirit to a group of persons (Aut. n. 489) with a view to their collaborating in the apostolic ministry of the Word (Letter to the Nuncio, 12 August 1849) and to a “perfectly common life” (Aut. n. 491) which must forcefully express fraternity (nn. 609-613) and hospitality (n. 608), and is at the same time is inspired in an evangelical rule of poverty, sharing and work (Letter to Caixal, 5 September 1849; Aut. n. 608). While it is strongly projected on external activity, this community is characterised by an intense inner dynamism of prayer, study, ministerial preparation, etc. (ibid.) It is understood as being a project that is to last for one’s whole life and which, as an offering of grace, calls for a response in fidelity and perseverance (Aut. n. 490). It is the Holy Spirit who, as in the case of the community of Apostles (cf. Introduction to Rules for Secular Clergy), sustains and encourages this community with a charismatic gift that deeply binds it to Christ, the Son sent by the Father through Mary (Aut. n. 687)” (G. ALONSO, Ib., p. 63).

714    “All of these aspects, which the renewed Constitutions have carefully articulated, are proposed not only as goals, but also as educative elements whereby the community plays an active role in the itinerary of initiation of the future missionary” (G. ALONSO, Ib., p. 63).

715    Cf. Ib., pp. 66-68

716    Cf. Ib., pp. 69-74.

717    Ib., p. 75.

718    CMF, Servants of the Word, (SW). It carries the subtitle Our Missionary Service of the Word in the “New Evangelization.”

719    Cf. SW., n. 6.

720    Cf. SW., n. 21.

721    Cf. SW., n. 21.1.

722    Cf. SW., n. 21.1.

723    Cf. SW., n. 15, 15.3.

724    Cf. SW., n. 21.2.

725    Cf. SW., nn. 14, 14.1, 21.2.

726    Cf. SW., nn. 21.3., 21.4., 21.6.

727    Cf. SW., n. 21.5.

728    Cf. SW., n. 22.2.

729    Cf. Minute 14, 13 September 1991, Annales 60 (1991), p. 255.

730    In the next chapter we will speak of the message he wrote on the occasion of the promulgation of the GPF. He has also addressed other formative messages to the various areas of the Congregation on the occasion of assemblies, courses, encounters, etc….

731    A. BOCOS, circular letter on the Missionary Testament of our Martyrs, Annales, 60 (1991-1992), pp. 492-519.

732    Cf. Ib., pp. 492-500.

733    Cf. Ib., pp. 496-497.

734    Cf. Ib., pp. 511-512, 519.

735    Cf. Ib., p. 497.

736    Cf. Ib., pp. 498-499.

737    Cf. CC., 1986, n. 56.

738    Cf. CC., 1986, n. 58.

739    Cf. Mt. 9, 38.

740    Cf. CC., 1986, n. 58.

741    A. BOCOS, Letter of Father General to the Claretian Missionaries in Formation, Annales, 60 (1991-1992), pp. 615-621.

742    A. BOCOS, Ib., p. 616.

743    Cf. Ib., p. 617.

744    Cf. Ib., p. 618.

745    Cf. Ib., pp. 618-619.

746    During the present six-year period, besides the GPF and the HMSF, the Commentary to Part II of the Constitutions is being finished. The General Formation Prefecture has kept on publishing the Booklets on Claretian Formation and is about to complete the drafting of the formative project of Initiation in the Ministry of the Word (IMW).

747    HMSF. Statutes, Annales, 62 (1996), pp. 581-583, 599-602.

748    CLARETIAN MISSIONARIES, Formation of Missionaries, General Plan of Formation, Rome 1994, 375 pp. In addition to the original Spanish, it has been translated and published in Polish, French, German, Italian and Portuguese.

749    We have already seen that, in addition to the Regulations for the Postulants, also valid for the professed, the book Prácticas Espirituales… had, as its object “making as it were a compilation of the practices of our beloved Congregation,” for the Claretian formation of the Novices (Cf. Introduction, p. 6). In the same way, “The Well-Instructed Novice,” by Fr. Ribera, gave formative orientations to the newly professed (pp. 412-426) and special advices to the students (pp. 427-445) and to the coadjutor brothers (pp. 445-454).

750    “This idea of the Missionary does not take place in a single stroke; it must keep taking concrete shape little by little in the young Missionaries. Grace ordinarily follows or accommodates itself to nature. Hence, the Prefects should have a joint plan that they should develop proportionally to the plan of studies, which is to say that, just as there is a growing progression in studies and sciences, so should there be one in virtue” (N. GARCÍA, Formación de…, Annales, 28 (1932), p. 236).

751    XIII GENERAL CHAPTER, Anales, 30 (1934), p. 443.

752    Cf. Ib., p. 529.

753    Cf. XIV GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 34 (1938), p. 54.

754    Cf. XV GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 40 (1949-1950), p. 113.

755    XVI GENERAL CHAPTER, Annales, 46 (1961-1962), p. 102.

756    Cf. Ib., pp. 102, 106.

757    Cf. 1F,. n. 84.

758    1B, nn. 19, 23-24, 30-31.

759    Cf. 1F., nn. 84, 169.

760    Cf. Dir., nn. 265-267, 303-305.

761    Cf. Dir., n. 212-214. 247-249

           The General Assembly of Costa Rica, in order to facilitate the formators’ task, the sensitisation of the young men in the Claretian spirit and to promote a basic uniform formation, asked for the creation of a program with basic contents. This program should be such that, leaving margin for creativity, it could be imparted in all formation stages, accompanied with some monographic explanatory booklets (Cf. Annales, 52 (1976) p. 469).

762    Cf. Dir., nn. 173, 252.

763    Cf. CC., n. 72.

764    Cf. CC., n. 72.

765    Cf. Dir., n. 156; cf. also nn. 173, 236.

766    Cf. Dir., nn. 167, 236.

767    Cf. CIC, cc. 650, 659.2, with 242, 660.1.

768    Cf. CC., 1986, n. 72.

769    Cf. Conclusion.

770    For a detailed description of its elaboration process, cf. CMF, General Plan of Formation, Historical Notes, pp. 30-38; Annales, 61 (1993-1994), pp. 134-159, 441-464.

771    One of the fundamental approaches that were taken into account from the beginning, and one of the most difficult to pinpoint was, on the one hand, how to present our charism and spirituality in pedagogical terms. On the other hand, how to stress the Claretian nature at the time of proposing the formative values and orientations. About this theme, cf. J. Mª. PALACIOS, Elaboración de un Plan General de Formación, Boletín de Vida Religiosa, n. 11, 79 (1996), pp. 324-331; El carisma en clave formativa, Ib., n. 12, pp. 356-363.

772    Cf. Annales, 60 (1991), pp. 254-255.

773    For various reasons some of the members of the Commission were not able to participate in the encounter. Actually, the following took part in it: Frs. Jesús Mª Palacios, for the General Government; Lawrence Christian, from USA-WEST; Anthony Rangel, from Mexico; Charles Amadi, from Nigeria; Segundo Alonso, from Canada-Cameroon; Cyriac Njayarkulam, from Sri Lanka; Anthony Paneque, from Korea; Piotr Liszka, from Poland; Gonzalo Fernández, from Castille, and Michael Fernández Fariñas, from Betica.

774    Among other things, the letter stated: “With this work, the IFC has completed the task assigned it two years ago by the General Government, following the indications of the XXI General Chapter.

           The IFC sincerely thanks the General Government for the trust it has accorded it from the outset, and for all the facilities and support received during this time in order to be able to effectively fulfil its commitment.

           The coincidence of finishing the text on the Feast of the Heart of Mary, our Mother and Foundress, has a symbolic and providential value. From the first day, we placed our task under the protection of Mary, our Formatrix, for in the long run we were going to collaborate in the formation of her sons. As it could hardly be otherwise, she has always been present in our deliberations and decisions. Throughout this time we have felt her encouraging and enlightening presence. We thank her with all our heart and ask her that the GPF may be an instrument of authentic Claretian formation for the good of the Church and of the Congregation” (Annales, 61 (1993-1994), pp. 451, 463).

775    Cf. Dir., n. 19.

776    On August 12th, the Spanish edition of the GPF was published in Madrid. The work was done by Publicaciones Claretianas of our Community of Buen Suceso. The book, entitled Formación de Misioneros, consists of 376 pages. (The English translation, entitled Formation of Missionaries, has also 376 pages [Translator´s note]). The Presentation, made by Fr. General, Aquilino Bocos, is followed by the Decree of Promulgation. Copies have been sent to all Major Superiors of the Congregation, to the members of the International Formation Commission and to the experts who intervened in its drafting. A sufficient number of copies have also been sent to the formation communities and centres of the various Organisms and General Houses. The idea of the General Government is that each person in formation should have a copy of the GPF for his personal use, beginning in the noviciate.

777    As Fr. General says in the Presentation, “In the first place, it appears under the title “Formation of Missionaries” because the entire work is aimed, in a harmonious, systematic and progressive way, at fostering the vocational growth and maturity of those who feel called to share our missionary life in the Church” (p. 7).

778    Cf. GPF., pp. 7-13.